[Prefatory Note, April, 2007: I compiled this bibliography during the two months of May-June, 2002. I'm not sure I'll ever finish it. I hope so. It's not much use without an index, unless you just want to browse through it for ideas. There are a few cross references at the end of some of the entries. There are huge gaps in it still, mostly related to identity politics, like women's, gay and lesbian, and African-American studies. What I did was pick a good book on a topic, like feudalism, and then hang a short  bibliography on that entry. A lot of good books have appeared in the past five years which should be added. I suppose there will be another twenty pages or so if I ever get back to this project. Also, the text needs editing quite badly. For some unknown reason, I wrote the annotations in incomplete sentences. I've fixed those up a bit for the first few pages, through Arditti. Anyway, I'll post it for whatever use it may be to those who like bibliographies. It prints out in letter-size pages on 64 sheets.]

Emancipatory Social Thought: A Bibliography

A Partially Annotated Bibliography in English for the
Libertarian Left and Progressive Populists in the United States

James Herod
May-June 2002

Abendroth, Wolfgang, A Short History of the European Working Class. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1972, 204 pages.) It covers the beginnings of the working class up to the defeat of 1848, and then the First International, the emergence of labor unions and working-class parties, the Second International, and on down through fascism and the Second World War.

Abu-Jamal, Mumia, Live From Death Row. (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1995, 215 pages.) This is the first book of prison writings from the framed, still-incarcerated, former Black Panther, radical journalist. The effort to free him has sparked an international movement. His radio commentaries were banned from National Public Radio, but are used frequently on Pacifica Radio. As of winter 2004, the case is still being fought out in the courts, although the legal options are just about exhausted. Two more collections of his commentaries have also appeared: Death Blossoms: Reflections of a Prisoner of Conscience (1997); and All Things Censored (2001). For studies see: Amnesty International, The Case of Mumia Abu-Jamal: A Life in the Balance (Seven Stories, 2001); and Terry Bisson, On a Move: The Story of Mumia Abu Jamal (2000).

Ackelsberg, Martha A., Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women. (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1991, 229 pages.) This is the story of Mujeres Libres, 1936-1939, founded in Madrid and Barcelona, in the Spanish Revolution, which focused on women’s triple oppression due to ignorance, gender, and work, with a special interest in the role of community in the empowerment of women. (See also the entry for Vernon Richards.)

Agee, Philip, Inside the Company: CIA Diary. (Stonehill, 1975, 639 pages.) Agee is probably America’s most famous anti-CIA activist. He resigned from the CIA in disgust in 1968 and began writing his insider expose, published in 1975, which remains one of the best of (now) several. He has been hounded and harassed by the CIA ever since, with his passport revoked. It’s a massive compendium of the dirty tricks and covert actions (including coups, assassinations, subverted elections, proxy wars, death squads, torture, drug running) done by a completely immoral, secret, criminal, rogue agency (but with the approval of the President and Congress). See also his book, On the Run (1987), and Warner Poelchau, editor, White Paper Whitewash: Interviews with Philip Agee on The CIA and El Salvador (Deep Cover Books, New York, 1981).

Ahmad, Eqbal, Eqbal Ahmad: Confronting Empire. (South End Press, Boston, 2000, 204 pages.) Interviews with David Barsamian. Ahmad was a very civilized, cultured, calm, educated, rational voice on the left. An inspiration to listen to. These wide-ranging interviews cover such topics as Kashmir, Palestine, Orientalism, the Taliban, the demonization of Islam, the perils of nationalism, the lexicon of terrorism, the Armenian Genocide, Sri Lanka, poetry and revolution, and much more. The book includes a select bibliography of his writings. You can listen to many of the interviews on tape, available from Alternative Radio in Boulder, Colorado.

Albert, Judith Clavir and Stewart Edward, editors, The Sixties Papers: Documents of a Rebellious Decade. (Praeger, New York, 1984, 549 pages, illustrated with 43 photographs.) The book begins with an excellent 62-page introductory history of the decade by the editors. The selected papers are divided into six sections: Prophetic Visions/Formative Ideas, the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements, Students for a Democratic Society, The Anti-War Movement, The Counterculture, and Women’s Rebellion. The sixties is an extensively anthologized decade. Here is a list. Massimo Teodori, editor, The New Left: A Documentary History (1969, 501 pages); Priscilla Long, editor, The New Left: A Collection of Essays (1969, 475 pages); Carl Oglesby, editor, The New Left Reader (1969, 312 pages); Arthur Lothstein, editor, "All We Are Saying ...": The Philosophy of the New Left (1970, 381 pages); Peter Stansill and David Zane Mairowitz, editors, BAMN (By Any Means Necessary): Outlaw Manifestos and Ephemera 1965-1970 (1971, 280 pages); Walt Anderson, editor, The Age of Protest (1969, 268 pages); Mitchell Cohen and Dennis Hale, editors, The New Student Left (1967, 339 pages); Sohnya Sayres, et al., editors, The 60s Without Apology (1984, 390 pages); James Weinstein and David Eakins, editors, For a New America: Essays in History and Politics from ‘Studies on the Left’ 1959-1967 (1970, 464 pages); Jesse Kornbluth, editor, Notes from the New Underground (1968, 302 pages); James Haskins and Kathleen Benson, editors, The 60s Reader (1988, 244 pages); Roderick Aya and Norman Miller, editors, The New American Revolution (1971, 341 pages); Tariq Ali, editor, The New Revolutionaries: A Handbook of the International Radical Left (1969, 319 pages); Diane Divoky, editor, How Old Will You Be In 1984? Expressions of Outrage from the High School Free Press. (1969, 350 pages); Jerry Hopkins, editor, The Hippie Papers: Notes from the Underground Press (1968, 222 pages); and Joan and Robert Morrison, From Camelot to Kent State: The Sixties Experience in the Words of Those Who Lived It (1970, 384 pages). For critical assessments see Irving Howe, editor, Beyond the New Left: A Confrontation and Critique (McCall, New York, 1970, 249 pages), with essays by Irving Howe, Michael Harrington, Richard Lowenthal, Paul Goodman, David Spitz, Lewis Coser, Michael Walzer, Allen Braubard, Henry Pachter, Brendan Sexton, Eugene Genovese, Robert Brustein, Theodore Draper, and Erazim Kohak.

Ali, Tariq, The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads, and Modernity. (Verso, London, 2002, 342 pages.) Ali provides historical background and contemporary assessment of Islam, the Middle East, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Palestine, and Israel. The clash of fundamentalisms refers to Islamic, Hindu, Jewish, and Christian fundamentalisms. The Neoliberalism of contemporary capitalism/imperialism is also seen as a fundamentalism. Chapter Nineteen is devoted to "A Short-Course of US Imperialism," while Chapter Twenty is on September Eleven. Tariq Ali is a Pakistani radical intellectual, born and raised in Lahore, but who has lived most of his life in London. He is now an editor of the New Left Review. He has written five novels, as well as several non-fiction books, including: Can Pakistan Survive? (1982); 1968 and After: Inside the Revolution (1978); Street Fighting Years: An Autobiography of the Sixties (1987); and Revolution from Above: Where is the Soviet Union Going (1988); and Bush in Babylon: The Recolonisation of Iraq (2003).

Anderson, Andy, Hungary 1956. (Solidarity, North London, 1964; Black and Red, Detroit, 1976, 138 pages.) This is a live account of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, from an anarcho-syndicalist perspective, which focuses on the creation of workers councils. See also Bill Lomax, Hungary 1956 (Spokesmen, 1980), which has a chapter on the workers’ councils. Lomax also edited Eyewitness in Hungary: The Soviet Invasion of 1956 ("a vivid picture of the heroism of a people rebelling against oppression and foreign domination"). For a documentary history, see Melvin Lasky, editor, The Hungarian Revolution. There is a photographic essay by Reg Gadney, Cry Hungary! Uprising 1956 (Atheneum, 1986), covering the thirteen days of the revolt from October 23 to November 4. Although more mainstream, it is nevertheless fascinating because of the spectacular photographs.

Angeles, Peter A., editor, Critiques of God: Making the Case Against Belief in God. (Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York, 1997, 371 pages.) The book contains classic statements by Sigmund Freud, John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, Erich Fromm, Corliss Lamont, and Sidney Hook, as well as more contemporary philosophical work. It has a useful bibliography.

Anweiler, Oskar, The Soviets: The Russian Workers, Peasants, and Soldiers Councils, 1905-1921 [1958]. (Pantheon Books, New York, 1974, 337 pages.) Anweiler begins with a brief consideration of the historical and theoretical antecedents of the council concept. He picks up the story with the emergence of councils in the revolution of 1905, and follows it through to the end of the council movement in the Kronstadt insurrection of 1921. This is the most detailed history so far.

Aptheker, Herbert, The American Revolution 1763-1783. (International Publishers, New York, 1960, 304 pages.) This is the classic radical (marxist) history of the American Revolution. An earlier history along the same lines is by Jack Hardy, The First American Revolution (1937). For further studies see: Richard Brown, Revolutionary Politics in Massachusetts: The Boston Committee of Correspondence and the Towns, 1772-1774; Richard Ryerson, The Revolution is Now Begun: The Radical Committees of Philadelphia, 1765-1776; Elisha Douglass, Rebels and Democrats: The Struggle for Equal Political Rights and Majority Rule during the American Revolution; and Staughton Lynd, Class Conflict, Slavery, and the United States Constitution. See also Murray Bookchin’s account of the American Revolution in his The Third Revolution (vol. 1, pp. 143-245), which volume also has a guide to the literature in his four-page bibliographical essay. Of course, Howard Zinn discusses the American Revolution in his People’s History of the United States (1980). A recent study is by Ray Raphael, A People’s History of the American Revolution: How Common People Shaped the Fight for Independence (New Press, New York, 2001, 400 pages). A recent novel about the revolution, as seen from below, is by Paul Lussier, The Last Refuge of Scoundrels (Warner Books, 2001, 320 pages).

Arato, Andrew, and Eike Gebhardt, editors, The Essential Frankfurt School Reader. (Continuum, New York, 1982, 559 pages.) This reader reprints key texts from one of the most important radical intellectual currents of the interwar years – Marcuse, Adorno, Kirchheimer, Pollock, Horkheimer, Benjamin, Lowenthal, Fromm. For a history of the school, see Martin Jay, The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research 1923-1950 (Little Brown, 1973).

Arblaster, Anthony, Democracy. (University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1987, 119 pages.) This is a very fine brief survey of the history of democracy, in theory and practice. I like it especially because the author believes that the only real democracy is direct democracy, and makes a case for it, urging that it be created. See also, C. George Benello and Dimitrios Roussopoulos, editors, The Case for Participatory Democracy: Some Prospects for the Radical Society (Grossman, New York, 1971, 386 pages). (See also the entries for Green, Parenti (1974), Lummis, Castil, Fotopoulos, Pateman, Wood, Pitkin, Rousseau, Raptis, Castoriadis, Ostergaard.)

Arditti, Rita, Pat Brennan, and Steve Cavrak, editors, Science and Liberation. (South End Press, Boston, 1980, 398 pages, with a good bibliography.) Eight of the twenty-six essays were reprinted from the Boston journal, Science for the People. (There was a similar publication in London, Science for People; both journals expired.) Some of the topics covered are: the myth of the neutrality of science, sociobiology, genetics as a social weapon, the corporate roots of American science, dealing with the experts, scholars for dollars, the science establishment. A mid-sixties book which sort of started off the critique of institutional science is H.L. Nieburg, In the Name of Science (Quadrangle Books, Chicago, 1966, 431 pages). See also, Radical Science Essays, edited by Les Levidow (Free Association Books, London, 1986, 230 pages.) Stanley Aronowitz’s Science as Power: Discourse and Ideology in Modern Society (University of Minnesota Press, 1988) is a good overview and summing up of the critique of science developed by the New Left. See also, Mary Midgley, Science as Salvation: A Modern Myth and Its Meaning (Routledge, London, 1992, 239 pages), and Science and Poetry (Routledge, 2001, 230 pages).


Arendt, Hannah, On Revolution. (Viking Press, New York, 1963, 344 pages.) A German-Jewish intellectual [1906-1975], who escaped Nazi Germany to the United States in 1941. She was an original and learned political philosopher. She believed that a council system, organized horizontally, was the best replacement for the nation-state. She explored this thesis in Chapter Six of this book (pages 217-285), "The Revolutionary Tradition and Its Lost Treasure." Her big book is The Origins of Totalitarianism (Meridian Books, 1958, second enlarged edition, 520 pages). She published The Human Condition in 1958. Crises of the Republic (1972) reprints three essays plus an interview: Lying in Politics, Civil Disobedience, On Violence, and Thoughts on Politics and Revolution. Her other books are: Between Past and Future: Six Exercises in Political Thought (1963); Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1963); The Jew as Pariah (1978); and Men in Dark Times (1968). She has many insightful things to say about authority, power, freedom, democracy, revolution, violence, anti-semitism, although, for my tastes, she writes with an insufficient awareness of capitalism as an historical social order. Described by Sheldon Wolin as "a rare union of passion, nobility, and intellect," and by Hans Jonas as "one of the great women of this century." A special issue of Social Research was dedicated to her honor and memory (Volume 44, No. 1, Spring, 1977). See also The Portable Hannah Arendt (Penguin, 2000). There are many secondary studies, including: Richard Wolin, Heidegger’s Children: Hannah Arendt, Karl Lowith, Hans Jonas, and Herbert Marcuse (2001); Sylvie Courtine-Denamy, Three Women in Dark Times: Edith Stein, Hannah Arendt, Simone Weil (2001); George Kateb, Hannah Arendt: Politics, Conscience, Evil (1984); Richard Bernstein, Hannah Arendt and the Jewish Question (1996); Hannah Fenichel Pitkin, The Attack of the Blob: Hannah Arendt’s Concept of the Social (1998), and Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World (1983).

Arms, Suzanne, Immaculate Deception II: Myth, Magic, and Birth. (Ten Speed Press, 1992, revised, 290 pages.) A revision of her pioneering 1975 book, which was a new look at childbirth. An expose of the dangers of medicalized childbirth and a discussion of the wisdom of the natural process. See also, Sally Inch, Birthrights: What Every Parent Should Know about Childbirth in Hospitals (Pantheon, New York, 1984, 236 pages, with an introduction by the Boston Women’s Health Book Collective). This is a detailed, carefully researched, empirical study of all the many medical interventions that can happen to a mother in hospitals. A truly frightening book. See also the outstanding book by Michel Odent, Birth Reborn (Pantheon Books, 1984, 123 pages). This is the story of a natural birth clinic in France, illustrated with many photographs. It shows what childbirth could be. Another good book on this topic is by Richard W. Wertz and Dorthy C. Wertz, Lying-In: A History of Childbirth in America (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1989, expanded edition, 322 pages).

Aronson, Ronald, Jean Paul Sartre: Philosophy in the World (Verso, London, 1978, 358 pages), and Sartre’s Second Critique (Chicago University Press, 1987, 253 pages). These are the best introductions I know of to this very difficult thinker, a dominant French radical intellectual for four decades. See Sartre’s Critique of Dialectical Reason: Theory of Practical Ensembles (volume 1) [1960] (New Left Books, London, 1976, 835 pages), and Critique of Dialectical Reason: The Intelligibility of History (volume 2, posthumous) (Verso, London, 1991, 467 pages). Search for a Method, a long essay published at the beginning of the French edition of volume one, was published separately in English (Vintage, 1968, 181 pages). A prolific writer, Sartre wrote plays, novels, a study of Jean Genet, a five-volume study of Gustave Flaubert (The Family Idiot), books on psychology and emotions, existentialism, Being and Nothingness [1943] (his major philosophical work before the Critique), war diaries, a book on ethics, an autobiography of sorts (Words), literary criticism, and much political commentary. See also, Mark Poster, Sartre’s Marxism (1979); and R.D. Laing and D.G. Cooper, Reason & Violence: A Decade of Sartre’s Philosophy 1950-1960 (Pantheon Books, 1964, 184 pages), which has chapters expounding three of Sartre’s works: The Question of Method, Saint Genet, and Critique of Dialectical Reason.

Arrighi, Giovanni, Terence K. Hopkins, and Immanuel Wallerstein, Anti-Systemic Movements. (Verso, London, 1989, 123 pages.) An attempt at conceptualization, on a world scale, of liberation movements, by three radical scholars at the Fernand Braudel Center at Binghamton, New York. An excellent book.

Arshinov, Peter, History of the Makhnovist Movement 1918-1921 [1923]. (Black & Red, Detroit, 1974, 284 pages.) The story of the anarchist revolution in the Ukraine during the early years of the Soviet Union, and its suppression by the Boksheviks. For the only writings by Makhno in English see, The Struggle Against the State and Other Essays (AK Press, 1996, 114 pages). For studies, see: Michael Palij, The Anarchism of Nestor Makhno (Seattle, 1970), the most scholarly work on Makhno; and Victor Peters, Nestor Makhno: The Life of an Anarchist (Echo Books, Winnipeg, Canada, 1970). A brief survey of the movement is by Bill Nowlin, "The Makhnovist Movement," in Black Rose: Journal of Contemporary Anarchism, No. 2, Spring, 1975, pages 110-118. See also, Paul Avrich, The Russian Anarchists [1967] (Norton, New York, 1978, 303 pages); and Paul Avrich, editor, Anarchists in the Russian Revolution (Cornell, Ithaca, 1973, 179 pages), a documentary history. (See also the entries for Voline, Maximoff, Brinton, Mett.)

Avorn, Jerry, Up Against the Ivy Wall: A History of the Columbia Crisis. (Atheneum, New York, 1968, 307 pages, with co-authors Mark Jaffe, Oren Root, Paul Starr, Michael Stern, and Robert Stulberg, of the staff of the Columbia Daily Spectator). An annoying book, by aspiring professional journalists, whose first-hand observations somehow mostly missed the meaning of the revolt, viewing it as they were (these 25 editors, reporters, and researchers of the Spectator) from the outside. Still, it is a detailed account of the events. See also another journalistic account, by Joanne Grant, Confrontation on Campus: The Columbia Pattern for the New Protest (Signet, New York, 1969, 224 pages). This book contains about a dozen documents, two from the students, one from faculty, the rest from the university administration. Then there was the Cox Commission Report (Crisis at Columbia). There is a student written report: Police on Campus: The Mass Police Action at Columbia University, Spring 1968, published by the New York Civil Liberties Union (1969, 159 pages), written by Michael Baker, Bradley Brewer, Raymond DeBuse, Sally Hillsman, Murray Milner, and David Soeiro. I am unaware of any anthology or full-scale study of the occupation of the university in the spring of 1968 by those who did it, although I surely hope that one or several are out there.

Avrich, Paul, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background. (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1991, 265 pages.) An intriguing full-scale history of this famous case from the 1920s, by America’s greatest anarchist historian. Sacco and Vanzetti were executed in 1927 for murders allegedly committed during a robbery of a shoe factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts in 1920, a crime they almost certainly didn’t commit. Avrich places the case though in the context of the then existing militant anarchist movement, and the Palmer Raids and Red Scare of the 1920s. An excellent book.

Avrich, Paul, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. (Princeton University Press, 1995, 536 pages.) Contains 180 interviews conducted by the author between 1963 and 1991. Most of the interviewees (a few famous, but most obscure) were active in the anarchist movement during its heydays between the 1880s and 1930s. The paperback edition of this book was unfortunately abridged by two-fifths (536 vs 296 pages). Avrich has written many books (most published by Princeton University Press). See for example, Anarchist Portraits (1988, 316 pages), which contains short essays on most of the major figures of anarchism. He did more specialized studies of (in addition to the Sacco and Vanzetti case): The Modern School Movement: Anarchism and Education in the United States (1980, 447 pages); An American Anarchist: The Life of Voltairine de Cleyre (1978, 267 pages); The Haymarket Tragedy (1984, 535 pages); Kronstadt 1921 (1970, 271 pages); The Russian Anarchists (1967, 303 pages); and Russian Rebels 1600-1800 (1972, 309 pages).

Ayotte, Wendy, As Soon as You're Born They Make You Feel Small: Self-Determination for Children. (Syndicat des Eleves; written in the 80s; a small pamphlet.) The New Left spawned a ‘Little People’s Liberation Movement’, one of the few New Left initiatives to die in the crib. A small current persisted for a while though. There was a Youth Liberation Press in Ann Arbor. They published FPS: A Magazine of Young People’s Liberation, which lasted at least up until 1978, perhaps longer.

Babeuf, Gracchus, The Defense of Gracchus Babeuf Before the High Court of Vendone [April, 1797]. (Schocken Books, New York, 1972, 112 pages, with 21 line drawings by Thomas Cornell of famous figures in the French Revolution, a foreward by John Anthony Scott, "Francois-Moel Babeuf and the Conspiration des Egaux," and an afterword by Herbert Marcuse, "Thoughts on the Defense of Gracchus Babeuf," plus biographical notes.) See also, Phillippe Buonarroti’s History of Babeuf’s Conspiracy for Equality (1836). For an excellent study see, R.B. Rose, Gracchus Babeuf: The First Revolutionary Communist (Sanford University Press, 1978, 434 pages). Babeuf is claimed as a predecessor by Leninists, as perhaps the first to try to organize a revolutionary vanguard to seize state power. Rose explores somewhat the contradictions of fighting for equality with an elitist strategy. Aside from strategy though, Babeuf brought to revolutionary thought an early focus on radical egalitarianism and the absolute rejection of private property. "Babeuf’s overriding preoccupation was always the satisfaction of individual needs through a more just mode of the distribution of the products of labor." (Rose). The vanguard strategy was picked up again in mid-nineteenth century France by the conspirator Blanqui. See Alan Spitzer, The Revolutionary Theories of Louis Auguste Blanqui (Columbia University Press, 1957, 208 pages). And then of course by Lenin and Trotsky.

Bailey, Roy and Mike Brake, editors, Radical Social Work. (Pantheon, New York, 1975, 171 pages). Includes a chapter by Cloward and Piven, "Notes Toward a Radical Social Work." Other chapters on "Welfare Rights and Wrongs," Community Development," "Paradigm for Radical Practice," and so forth. Coming out of the sixties, radical groups formed in most academic disciplines, and many started journals, some of which still exist. For example, for Middle East Studies, see the Middle East Report. For Latin American Studies, see the Nacla Report (North American Congress on Latin America). For sociology, see The Insurgent Sociologist (later Critical Sociology). For political science, see Politics and Society. For economics, see the journal of the Union of Radical Political Economists. For history, see Radical History Review. And so forth (there are well over a hundred important independent (alternative, progressive, radical, left-wing) journals, magazines, and newspapers in the United States. There are also books, for example: Frederick Krantz, editor, History from Below: Studies in Popular Protest and Popular Ideology; Radical Historians Organization (Marho), Visions of History: Interviews with Hobsbawm, Thompson, Rowbotham, Williams (etc); Louis Kampf, editor, The Politics of Literature: Dissenting Essays on the Teaching of English; Barton Bernstein, editor, Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History; George Katsiaficas, and R. George Kirkpatrick, Introduction to Critical Sociology (1987); Martin Opennheimer, et al, editors, Radical Sociologists and the Movement; Philip Brown, editor, Radical Psychology. (See also the entries for Merill for radical agriculture, Peet for radical geography, Arditti for radical science, Godfrey Boyle for radical technology, and Edgley for radical philosophy.)

Baird, Peter, and Ed McCaughan, Beyond the Border: Mexico and the U.S., Today. (North American Congress on Latin America, New York, 1979, 205 pages.) Now nearly a quarter century old, but still valuable as a relatively rare radical analysis of Mexico. Labor, finance, immigration. Unmaking the Mexican revolution. Illustrated with numerous photos.

Bakunin, Michael, Marxism, Freedom, and the State. (Freedom Press, London, 1950, 63 pages.) A short selection of key texts from Bakunin (by K.J. Kenafick), which serves as a brief introduction to his thought. For more, see Sam Dolgoff’s excellent collection, Bakunin on Anarchy: Selected Works by the Activist-Founder of World Anarchism (Alfred Knopf, New York, 1972, 411 pages, with a preface by Paul Avrich, and a supplementary essay by James Guillaume, from 1876, "On Building the New Social Order"). This anthology has essays, letters, and excerpts from longer works, dating from 1842 until 1875, covering such topics as the International, the Paris Commune, Rousseau, Marx, God and the State, the Alliance, and so forth. There is an earlier anthology of Bakunin, compiled by G. P. Maximoff, The Political Philosophy of Bakunin (Free Press, 1953, 432 pages), which I have never liked because it is made up from snippets of text pulled from here and there and patched together under Maximoff’s own numerous headings and subheadings – not a good way to present a thinker’s writings. The new Cambridge edition (1990, 243 pages) of Statism and Anarchy [1873] is very good, with an introduction, a chronology of Bakunin’s life, a bibliography of primary and secondary works, and extensive footnotes (added). Statism and Anarchy was Bakunin’s last major writing, and his only book-length work (after The Knouto-Germanic Empire, which was never finished and never published in his lifetime). It contains his evaluation of the state system (as under Bismark), a long discussion of his opposition to Marx and Marxism, and a description of his image of an anarchist society. Bakunin’s God and the State [1882] (Dover, 1970, 89 pages), his most widely read work, is actually an excerpt from the never published manuscript on the Knouto-Germanic Empire. For biographies, see E.H. Carr, Michael Bakunin; (1937); and Anthony Masters, Bakunin: The Father of Anarchism (1974). See also, T.R. Ravindranathan, Bakunin and the Italians (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1988, 332 pages). Bakunin’s papers are archived at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam. His collected works run to seven volumes and counting.

Balibar, Etienne, Spinoza and Politics [1985]. (Verso, London, 1995, 136 pages.) It seems that a minor revival of Spinoza (1632-1677) is underway, a philosopher much admired by Marx. An early critic of Descartes (1596-1650), Spinoza avoided the mind/body dualism of the founder of modern philosophy. According to Balibar, Spinoza rejected "every dualism of spirit and matter". So if Spinoza’s leads had been followed, instead of Descartes’, we might have avoided 350 years of materialism and idealism, objectivism and subjectivism. Spinoza is thus perhaps the first modern philosopher to think non-dualistically, standing at the beginning of a long, honorable tradition, which struggled to do that, traced through Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Dietzen, down to modern hegelian marxists (Lukacs, Sartre, Goldmann), the Frankfurt School (Adorno, Marcuse, Horkheimer), Merleau-Ponty, Witgenstein, American pragmatists (Pierce, James, Dewey, Mead, Quine, Rorty, Putnam), and Donald Davidson. See also, Antonio Negri, The Savage Anomaly: The Power of Spinoza’s Metaphysics and Politics, and Gilles Deleuze, Spinoza: Practical Philosophy.

Barnett, Donald L., and Karari Njama, Mau Mau From Within: An Analysis of Kenya’s Peasant Revolt (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1966, 512 pages.) The story of the guerrilla war waged against the British by the Kenya Land and Freedom Army between 1953 and 1957, with a loss of 10,000 African lives, as told by a participant, Karanji Njama, a school teacher, in cooperation with Donald Barnett, an anthropologist.

Bay, Christian, Strategies of Political Emancipation. (University of Notre Dame Press, 1981, 247 pages.) A study of freedom, oppression, and human emancipation. The author seeks "to help prepare the conceptual terrain and to assemble some empirical knowledge to aid and facilitate emancipatory struggles." See especially Chapter Six, "Toward a World of Natural Communities." He challenges the conditions of existence under the ‘liberal-corporate world’. Although Bay comes out of a social science background, he became versed in radical social philosophy too. But he does not go far enough, to my mind (i.e., he does not want to get rid of the state and corporations completely, but only to drastically reduce their power vis a vis communities). Given the dearth of thinking about revolutionary strategy however, this book is well worth studying.

Beaud, Michel, A History of Capitalism 1500-2000. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 2000, 348 pages). A full-scale, detailed, empirical history. Covers the long journey to capitalism (16th, 17th centuries), the century of three revolutions (18th), the rise of industrial capitalism (1800-1870), great depression to first world war (1870-1914), the great upheaval (1914-1945), capitalism’s great leap forward (1945-1980), and the accelerating transformation at end of century.

Bellamy, Edward, Equality. (Appleton, New York, 1897, 412 pages). Equality is the sequel, ten years later, to Bellamy’s Looking Backward (2000-1887), and is a more radical, egalitarian, and libertarian book. For contemporary assessments see Daphne Patai, editor, Looking Backward, 1988-1888: Essays on Edward Bellamy (University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1988, 227 pages), especially the outstanding, 62-page essay by Franklin Rosemont, "Bellamy’s Radicalism Reclaimed."

Benjamin, Walter, Illuminations. (Jonathan Cape, London, 1970, 280 pages.) Essays from a member (unorthodox even for that group) of the Frankfurt School, including the famous "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," and "Theses on the Philosophy of History". See also, Benjamin’s Reflections: Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1978, 348 pages), and Understanding Brecht (New Left Books, 1973). Among his major works are The Origin of German Tragic Drama (New Left Books, London, 1977), and Arcades Project (Harvard, 1999). See also, Complete Correspondence 1928-1940 (Harvard, 1999), and Selected Writings 1913-1934 (in two volumes, Harvard, 1996, 1999). For secondary works, see Terry Eagleton, Walter Benjamin, or Towards a Revolutionary Criticism; and Gershom Scholem, Walter Benjamin: The Story of a Friendship.

Berger, John, The Success and Failure of Picasso. (Penguin Books, 1965, 210 pages, with 120 illustrations.) A terrific, fascinating book, by an outstanding, major radical art critic. This is an assessment of Picasso in the context of Picasso’s relationship with the revolutionary movement. See also Berger’s books: About Looking (1980); Ways of Seeing (1972); and Art and Revolution: Ernst Neizvestny and the Role of the Artist in the USSR (1969). Many other books.

Bergman, Lincoln, et al., co-authors, Puerto Rico: The Flame of Resistance. (Peoples Press, Puerto Rico Project, San Francisco, 1977, 180 pages.) A people’s history, heavily illustrated with great photos. See also, Puerto Rico: A People Challenging Colonialism (published by the Ecumenical Program for Interamerican Communication and Action, the National Ecumenical Movement in Puerto Rico, and the American Friends Service Committee, 1976, 108 pages).

Berkeley International Liberation School, and the People’s Law Book Collective, Beat the Heat: A Radical Survival Handbook. (Ramparts Press, San Francisco, 1972, 334 pages, with the assistance of the Bay Area National Lawyers Guild.) Four parts: People’s Law Book; Community Organization Guide: A Legal Defense Manual; First Aid for Activists; and Firearms and Self-Defense.

Berkman, Alexander, What Is Communist Anarchism? [1929]. Parts Two and Three of this book (14 chapters) were reprinted in 1942 by Freedom Press, London, as The ABC of Anarchism, 99 pages. Part One (18 chapters) was reprinted by Phoenix Press, London, in 1989, as What is Communist Anarchism?, 117 pages. This is an excellent summary of anarchist thought as of the 1920s. There is now a Berkman reader, Life of an Anarchist, edited by Gene Fellner. Berkman’s Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist is also available.

Berlet, Chip, and Matthew Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort. (Guilford Press, New York, 2000 498 pages.) This is an historical study which charts the course of right-wing populism from earliest times in America. Urgent reading, considering the arrival in America of fascism, or near fascism, after the events of September Eleven, a development made possible (or easier) by the nation’s near hegemonic right-wing populism, including the Christian Right.

Berlin, Isaiah, The Roots of Romanticism. (Princeton University Press, 1999, 171 pages, being the Mellon Lectures for 1965.) A really fascinating book. Berlin traces the romantic movement, beginning with an attempted definition (Ch. 1), from the First Attack on the Enlightenment (Ch. 2), through the True Fathers of Romanticism (Ch. 3, namely Johann Georg Hamann and Johann Gottfried Herder), to the Restrained Romantics (e.g., Schiller, Fichte, Ch. 4), to Unbridled Romanticism (eg. Goethe, Ch. 5), ending with an assessment of the lasting effects of the movement (Ch. 6). As a liberal, Berlin doesn’t perceive the relevance of romanticism for post-dualistic, anti-foundationalist epistemology, anarchism, or revolution, but radicals can read between the lines. Berlin did a more detailed study of Johann Georg Hamann called The Magus of the North: J.G. Hamann and the Origins of Modern Irrationalism (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York, 1993, 144 pages). Another really fascinating book. Hamann was a contemporary of Kant and lived in the same town. The two men were at serious odds. You can’t help but side with Hamann, although that was not Berlin’s intention of course. A useful anthology has been edited by John Halsted, Romanticism (Harper and Row, 1969, 365 pages), which reprints texts from the romantic movements in aesthetics, religion, politics, history, and personal ideals.

Berneri, Marie Louise, Journey Through Utopia. (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1950, 339 pages.) A compilation of extensive excerpts from original texts interspersed with lengthy commentary. An unusual book on utopia in that it was written by an anarchist. She identifies the utopian works that are anti-authoritarian, which are surprisingly few. See also Glenn Negley and Max Patrick, editors, The Quest for Utopia: An Anthology of Imaginary Societies. (Henry Schuman, New York, 1952, 599 pages). This is an excellent reference, with extensive excerpts (abridgements) of many major utopias as well as relatively unknown minor ones. There are survey chapters on modern utopias 1850-1950 (with a bibliographical list of 116 works), and on classical utopias 900-200 b.c. Two to three page introductions precede each selection. A quite useful academic survey of the history of utopia, in theory and practice, is by Krishan Kumar, Utopianism (Minnesota University Press, Minneapolis, 1991, 136 pages). Two older histories of utopias are: Lewis Mumford, The Story of Utopias (1922), and Joyce Oramel Hertzler, The History of Utopian Thought (1923). A huge scholarly work is by Frank and Fritzie Manuel, Utopian Thought in the Western World (1979, 896 pages). See also, Peyton Richter, editor, Utopias: Social Ideals and Communal Experiments (1971). A big beautiful book is by Ian Tod and Michael Wheeler, Utopia (Harmony Books, New York, 1978, 160 pages, 9x11 inches). This book is profusely illustrated with art work, photographs, and architectural drawings. Described on the cover as "The perfect society visualized by the world’s greatest utopian writers, painters, poets, and architects." It begins with ancient times. See also, Leo Panitch and Colin Leys, editors, Necessary and Unnecessary Utopias: Socialist Register 2000; and Roland Schaer, Gregory Claeys, and Lyman Sargent, editors, Utopia: The Search for the Ideal Society in the Western World (Oxford, 2001, 386 pages, illustrated), based on the major exhibit on Utopias at the New York Public Library. (See also the entries for Fisher, Buber, Boyle, Holloway.)

Bernstein, Eduard, Cromwell and Communism: Socialism and Democracy in the Great English Revolution [1895]. (Schocken Books, New York, 1963, 287 pages.) The pioneering study of radicals in the English revolution of 1640, within a general class struggle framework, locating the events between a dying feudalism and a nascent capitalism. One of the first to rediscover Gerrard Winstanley. A forerunner of Christopher Hill.

Bernstein, Richard J., Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis. (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985, 284 pages.) A good survey and introduction to modern attempts to escape the Cartesian dualism, by a progressive, pragmatist American philosopher. "Playing off the strengths and weaknesses of Gadamer, Habermas, Rorty, and Arendt, I show how an underlying common vision emerges, one that illuminates the dialogical character of our human existence and our communicative transactions, and that points to the practical need to cultivate dialogical communities. In the final analysis, the movement behond objectivism and relativism is not just a perplexing theoretical quandry but a practical task that can orient and give direction to our collective praxis." (p. xv). This book builds on Bernstein’s earlier book, Praxis and Action (1971), a comprehensive study of the concept of ‘praxis’, which traces it through Marx and the Hegelian background, Kierkegaard and Sartre, Peirce and Dewey, to contemporary analytical philosophy.

Blackburn, Robin, editor, Ideology in Social Science: Readings in Critical Social Theory. (Pantheon Books, New York, 1972, 382 pages.) An excellent aid for breaking free from the stupidities of mainstream social science. Sample essays: Nell on the revival of political economy; Goddard on the limits of functionalism in anthropology; Westergaard on the myth of classlessness in sociology; Blackburn on the new capitalism; Nicolaus on the unknown Marx; Hobsbawm on marxist historiography; Miliband on the capitalist state; Nairn on the English working class; and so forth. See also, as a companion piece, Robin Blackburn, "A Brief Guide to Bourgeois Ideology," pages 163-213, in Student Power, edited by Alexander Cockburn and Robin Blackburn (Penguin, 1969). This essay is a survey of the orthodoxies of mainstream social science. Considering that such teaching has gone sludging on for the past thirty years, and even darkened and thickened under the impact of neoliberalism, as if the sixties had never happened, the essay is still highly relevant.

Blake, William, The Complete Illuminated Books. (Thames & Hudson, 2001, 480 pages). A reproduction of eighteen books in the form that Blake originally engraved and printed them, in 366 color plates, with a separate transcription of the texts and an introduction. A romantic and visionary, Blake has long been claimed by the libertarian left. For a study, see E.P. Thompson, Witness Against the Beast: William Blake and the Moral Law (New Press, 1993, 294 pages).

Bloch, Ernst, Atheism in Christianity: The Religion of the Exodus and the Kingdom. (Herder and Herder, New York, 1972, 273 pages.) Argues that there is an underground, subversive, revolutionary text in the scriptures, representing the early radical christian teachings, upon which got superimposed later the doctrines of the established church, namely, obedience to authority. A remarkable book. See also, Erich Fromm, You Shall Be As Gods: A Radical Interpretation of the Old Testment and its Tradition, in which he traces the evolution of radical humanism in the bible (Holt Rinehart, New York, 1966, 240 pages). Elaine Pagels, in The Gnostic Gospels, also elucidates the egalitarianism, communalism, and anti-authoritarianism of first-century Christianity.

Bloch, Ernst, The Principle of Hope [1959]. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1986, 3 vols, 1420 pages.) Bloch’s magnum opus, written in exile from the Nazis in the United States between 1938 and 1947. Leading East German radical philosopher. Bloch ranks with Hegel, Adorno, and Sartre in difficulty. His erudition is practically inconceivable to most contemporary intellectuals. Quite frankly, although I’ve read parts of this tome, plus other essays by Bloch, plus some secondary essays, I have only the vaguest idea of what this book is about. The background knowledge you need to comprehend the book, just in terms of historical, literary, and philosophical allusions, is way beyond me. I think it’s safe though (but no doubt banal) to say that Bloch is surely the most unorthodox, iconoclastic marxist philosopher who ever lived. His other books in English are: The Spirit of Utopia [1923] (Stanford University Press, 2000, 298 pages); A Philosophy of the Future [1963] (Herder and Herder, 1970, 149 pages); On Karl Marx (Herder and Herder, 1968, 178 pages, excerpts from The Principle of Hope); Essays on the Philosophy of Music (1986, 250 pages); Natural Law and Human Dignity (1986, 323 pages); Man on His Own: Essays in the Philosophy of Religion (Herder and Herder, 1970, 240 pages); Utopian Function of Art and Literature: Selected Essays (MIT, 1988); and Literary Essays (Stanford, 1998). Untranslated works include: Subjekt-Objekt. Erlauterungen zu Hegel; Freiheit und Ordnung. Abriss der Sozial-Utopien; Thomas Munzer als Theologe der Revolution. For a secondary study see, Wayne Hudson, The Marxist Philosophy of Ernst Bloch (St. Martin’s Press, 1982, 289 pages).

Bloch, Marc, Feudal Society [1940]. (University of Chicago Press, 1968, 499 pages.) The greatest history of feudalism. A standard classic. See also his Land and Work in Medieval Europe: Selected Papers (1967, 260 pages). Two freshman level introductions, to European feudalism, are: Carl Stephenson, Medieval Feudalism (Cornell, 1942, 116 pages); and Sidney Painter, Mediaeval Society (Cornell, 1951, 109 pages). Another standard, reasonably short introduction is by F. L. Ganshof, Feudalism (1961, 170 pages). Otherwise, see the following more substantive studies of the period: R. H. Hilton, A Medieval Society: The West Midlands at the End of the Thirteenth Century (1966, 305 pages); Rodney Hilton, Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements of the English Rising of 1381 (1973, 240 pages); George C. Homans, English Villagers of the Thirteenth Century (1941, 478 pages); Paul Vinogradoff, The Growth of the Manor (1911, 384 pages); George Unwin, The Gilds and Companies of London (1908, 401 pages); Robert Latouche, The Birth of Western Economy: Economic Aspects of the Dark Ages (1961, 341 pages); Ferdinand Lot, The End of the Ancient World and the Beginnings of the Middle Ages (1961, 441 pages); Paul Vignaux, Philosophy in the Middle Ages: An Introduction (1959, 223 pages); Sylvia L. Thrupp, The Merchant Class of Medieval London (1962, 401 pages); Charles Petit-Dutaillis, The Feudal Monarchy in France and England from the Tenth to the Thirteenth Century (1936, 420 pages); Sidney Painter, The Rise of the Feudal Monarchies (1951, 147 pages); C.W.C. Oman, The Art of War in the Middle Ages (1953, 176 pages); Marshall Baldwin, The Mediaeval Church (1953, 124 pages); Otto Gierke, Political Theories of the Middle Ages (1900, 197 pages); H.S. Bennett, Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions 1150-1400 (1962, 364 pages); John Beeler, Warfare in Feudal Europe 730-1200 (1971, 272 pages); John Neville Figgis, The Divine Right of Kings (1914, 350 pages); Eileen Power, Medieval People (1924, 210 pages); J. Huisinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages (1924, 326 pages); H. St. L. B. Moss, The Birth of the Middle Ages 395-814 (1935, 291 pages). (See also the entries for Boissonnade, Hilton, Dockes.)

Blum, William, Rogue State: A Guide to the World’s Only Superpower. (Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine, 2000, 308 pages.) A vigorous indictment of US foreign policy. Contains "A Concise History of US Global Interventions 1945-Present," (pp. 125-167), as well as discussions of the whole bag of dirty tricks and covert actions – bombings, assassinations, subverted elections, surveillance, terrorism, cluster bombs, depleted uranium, and more. See also his earlier (1995), full-scale study of the interventions, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. (See also the entry for Lens, 1971.)

Boissonnade, P., Life and Work in Medieval Europe [1927]. (Dorset Press, New York, 1987, 394 pages.) An unusual, sweeping history of the organization of productive life from the late Roman Empire at the close of the fourth century until the beginning of the rise of capitalism and national economies circa 1450. For those interested in this kind of thing, they might want to examine also Gustave Glotz, Ancient Greece at Work (1920).

Bookchin, Murray, The Third Revolution: Popular Movements in the Revolutionary Era. (Cassell, London, 1996 (vol. 1, 406 pages), 1998 (vol. 2, 351 pages). (Vol 3 to come.) Covers peasant revolts, the English Revolution, the American Revolution, the French Revolution (vol 1); the revolutions of 1830, 1848, and 1871 in Paris (vol 2). This is history from the bottom, grassroots history. Contains an account of the American Revolution as seen from below.

Bookchin, Murray, Remaking Society: Pathways to a Green Future. (South End Press, Boston, 1990, 222 pages.) This is, to my mind, perhaps Bookchin’s most succinct and readable statement of his overall politics and philosophy. Bookchin, a foremost anarchist theorist in America, and has many books, most famously perhaps, Post-Scarsity Anarchism (Rampart’s Press, Berkeley, 1971, 288 pages), but also The Limits of the City; The Ecology of Freedom; Urbanization without Cities: The Rise and Decline of Citizenship; The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years 1868-1936; and more. There is also a Bookchin reader now, edited by Janet Biehl (Continuum, 1988, 288 pages). See also Janet Biehl, The Politics of Social Ecology: Libertarian Municipalism (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1998, 187 pages) for a brief, clear exposition of Bookchin’s programatic proposals. A recent AK Press publication (1998, 400 pages), Anarchism, Marxism, and the Future of the Left, reprints his polemics in the nineties with lifestyle anarchists, postmodernists, and others. See also, Bookchin’s "The Ghost of Anarcho-Syndicalism," Anarchist Studies, Volume One, Number One, Spring, 1993, pages 3-24.

Boston Urban Study Group, Who Rules Boston? A Citizen’s Guide to Reclaining the City. (Institute for Democratic Socialism, Boston, 1984, 116 pages). A good example of the kind of power structure research radicals in every city should undertake. They got the goods on such elite institutions in Boston as the Chamber of Commerce, the Business Roundtable, the Real Estate Board, and more. Plus junior partners like the United Way, corporate law firms, social clubs. See also, James R. Green and Hugh Carter Donahue, Boston’s Workers: A Labor History (Boston Public Library, 1979, 134 pages).

Bottomore, Tom, and Patrick Goode, Austro-Marxism. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1978, 308 pages.) An anthology of texts from a unique school of marxian thought fashioned in the Austrian socialist movement from 1890 to 1934. The excellent 44-page introduction by Tom Bottomore provides a survey of the school. The major figures are Max Adler, Otto Bauer, Rudolf Hilferding, and Karl Renner. They stand between German Social Democracy and Russian Bolshevism, but not in the same way as the Frankfurt School did, with its emphasis on Hegel, aesthetics, cultural studies, and critiques of positivism and empiricism. The Austrian marxists, on the other hand, sought to develop marxism as an empirical social science, while still keeping its revolutionary character.

Bourne, Randolph, The Radical Will: Selected Writings 1911-1918. (Urizen Books, 1977; republished by the University of California Press, Berkeley, 1992, 548 pages.) A notorious radical journalist of the pre-WWI period. A savage critic of war and the state. For a short biography, see Louis Filler, Randolph Bourne.

Brailsford, H.N., The Levellers and the English Revolution [1961]. (Spokesman Books, Nottingham, 1976, 715 pages, published post-humous, edited and prepared for publication by Christopher Hill). Surely the most detailed history of the Levellers ever written. Seeks "to prove that, at decisive moments in the seventeenth-century English Revolution, the intellectual and political initiative lay with the Levellers, and that Cormwell and the Independent Grandees followed their Lead. Without this leveller initiative the course of English history might have been very different." (from Hill’s preface). For original documents see A.L. Morton, editor, Freedom In Arms: A Selection of Leveller Writings (Lawrence & Wishart, London, 1975, 354 pages); and G.E. Aylmer, editor, The Levellers in the English Revolution (Thames and Hudson, London, 1975, 180 pages). (See also entries for Hill, Petegorsky.)

Brandow, Karen, and Jim McDonnell, No Bosses Here! A Manual on Working Collectively and Cooperatively. (Alyson Publications/Vocations for Social Change, Boston, 1981, 115 pages). Chapters on starting a collective, decision making, dividing up the work, group dynamics, and so forth, with a bibliography and resource list.

Braudel, Fernand, Civilization and Capitalism 15th-18th Century. (Harper and Row, New York, 1981-84, three volumes, 623, 670, 699 pages.) Volume One: The Structures of Everyday Life; Volume Two: The Wheels of Commerce; Volume Three: The Perspective of the World. Surely the most massive, detailed history of the material world of capitalism ever written by one person. Braudel is from the Annales school of French historians (founded by Marc Bloch and Lucian Febvre). See also his history: The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (two volumes, 1949). A one volume abridgement (at the author’s request) of this book was published in 1992 (Harper and Row, 690 pages, with added illustrations). For those who would like a taste of Braudel before tackling the above intimidating works, see Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1977, 117 pages).

Brecher, Jeremy, Strike! [1972]. (South End Press, Boston, 1984, 329 pages.) The focus is not on labor organizations, but on strikes, direct action from below, and mass mobilizations (in the US), from a generally anarcho-syndicalist perspective, beginning with the Great Upheaval of 1877. A New Left classic. Nicely illustrated with photographs. See also Adamic, Louis, A Century of Class Violence in America 1830-1930 [1931] (Rebel Press, 1984, 224 pages). A sampling of studies of specific labor struggles is: Almont Lindsey, The Pullman Strike; Arthur Burgoyne, The Homestead Strike of 1892; David Demarest, editor, "The River Ran Red": Homestead 1892; Kim Moody and Jim Woodward, Battle Line: The Coal Strike of ‘78; Joel Tyler Headley, The Great Riots of New York 1712-1873; Peter Rachleff, Hard-Pressed in the Heartland: The Hormel Strike... ; Robert Freidheim, The Seattle General Strike; William Cahn, Lawrence 1912: The Bread and Roses Strike; Anthony Bimba, The Molly Maguires; Carleton Beals, The Great Revolt and Its Leaders: The History of Popular American Uprisings in the 1890s; Lon Savage, Thunder in the Mountains: The West Virginia Mine War 1920-21.

Breines, Wini, Community and Organization in the New Left, 1962-1968: The Great Refusal [1982]. (Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1989, 187 pages.) One of the finest studies of the New Left, with a focus on the community organizing projects of the Students for a Democratic Society and their concept of participatory democracy. See also the history by Kirkpatrick Sale, SDS [Students for a Democratic Society] (Random House, 1973, 752 pages). (See also the entries for James Miller, Albert, Draper (1965), and Koning (1987), Cohn-Bendit.)

Breton, Andre, What Is Surrealism? Selected Writings. (Monad Press, 1978, 389 pages; distributed by Pathfinder Press, New York.) A comprehensive compilation in English of the writings of the founder and major theorist of Surrealism. Has a hundred page introductory study by Franklin Rosemont. See also Breton’s Manifestoes of Surrealism (Ann Arbor, 1972). (See also the entry for Franklin Rosemont.)

Brinton, Maurice, The Bolsheviks and Workers Control 1917-1921: The State and Counter-revolution. (Solidarity, North London, 1970, 89 pages.) A blow by blow account, thoroughly researched and documented, of how the Bolsheviks destroyed the workers councils (Soviets) during the first years of the revolution.

Broue, Pierre, and Emile Temime, The Revolution and the Civil War in Spain [1961]. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, 1972, 591 pages.) This is a full-scaled history, the best general work on the revolution (according to Vernon Richards). Another classic account is Gerald Brenan, The Spanish Labyrinth: An Account of the Social and Political Background of the Spanish Civil War [1943] (Cambridge University Press, 1998, 384 pages). For a very brief account, see Rudolf Rocker, The Tragedy of Spain [1937] (reprinted by South London Direct Action Movement, 1986, 48 pages). Two other eyewitness accounts are: Franz Borkenau, The Spanish Cockpit: An Eyewitness Account of the Political and Social Conflicts of the Spanish Civil War [1937] (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1963, 303 pages); and George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia (1938, 314 pages). (See also the entries for Ackelsberg, Dolgoff, Paz, Richards.)

Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. (Holt, Rinehart, Winston, New York, 1970, 487 pages.) Covers the years 1860-1890, during which time "the culture and civilization of the American Indian was destroyed." A sixties classic. See also, Vine Deloria, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (Avon, 1969, 272 pages) and We Talk, You Listen (Dell, 1970, 227 pages); Stan Steiner, The New Indians (Dell, 1968, 348 pages); and Virgil J. Vogel, This Country Was Ours: A Documentary History of the American Indian (Harper, 1972, 473 pages). (See also the entries for Roger Owen, Jahoda, Paul Smith, and Matthiessen.)

Bruce, Lenny, How to Talk Dirty and Influence People: An Autobiography. ( Playboy Press, Chicago, 1972, 240 pages.) "Lenny Bruce [1925-1966], the legendary comedian, social satirist, free-speech crusader, and martyr to the up-tight social and moral repressions of the Age of Conformity." (from jacket of Goldman biography) "The immortal enemy of cant and hypocrisy and pseudo-liberalism" (George Carlin-jacket). "He didn’t keep his mouth shut. He kept crying out that it was a lie and that it didn’t have to be that way at all." (Rolling Stone-jacket). See also, Albert Goldman, Ladies and Gentlemen: Lenny Bruce!! (Random House, New York, 1971, 661 pages, from the journalism of Lawrence Schiller). "I’m not a comedian. And I’m not sick. The world is sick and I’m the doctor. I’m a surgeon with a scalpel for false values. I don’t have an act. I just talk. I’m just Lenny Bruce ..."

Bruns, Roger A., The Damndest Radical: The Life and World of Ben Reitman, Chicago’s Celebrated Social Reformer, Hobo King, and Whorehouse Physician. (University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1987, 332 pages.) "I am an American by birth, a Jew by parentage, a Baptist by adoption, single by good fortune, a physician and teacher by profession, cosmopolitan by choice, a socialist by inclination, a rascal by nature, a celebrity by accident, a tramp by twenty years’ experience, and a tramp reformer by inspiration." Ben Reitman [1879-1942]. Was there ever another like him? Impossible! (jacket)

Brustein, Robert, The Theatre of Revolt. (Little Brown, Boston, 1962, 435 pages.) "The roots of the modern theatre may be found in the soil of rebellion cultivated by eight outstanding playwrights: Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov, Shaw, Brecht, Pirandello, O’Neill, and Genet." (jacket) A chapter on each, discussing their rebellion against "the fashionable pieties of the age."

Buber, Martin, Paths in Utopia [1949]. (Beacon Press, Boston, 1958, 152 pages.) A study of the utopian elements in socialism. Covers St. Simon, Fourier, Proudhon, Kropotkin, Landauer, Marx, Lenin.

Buhle, Mari Jo, Paul Buhle, and Dan Georgakas, Encyclopedia of the American Left. (University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1990, 928 pages, 7x10 inches big.) This is a very welcome resource for American radicals. The editors claim that: "We have scrupulously avoided favoritism toward any sections of the Left, providing factual and respectful accounts of groups which have sometimes condemned each other as ferociously as they condemned capitalism." In describing an earlier left biographical dictionary, they claim that "it treats anarchists, Trotskyists, New Leftists, Wobblies, and most nineteenth century radicals rather cursorily." I guess we can assume that they tried to avoid this, and so it appears. Also included is a ‘Brief Guide [four pages] to Reference Sources’ relevant to the Left.

Button, John, The Radicalism Handbook: A Complete Guide to the Radical Movement in the Twentieth Century. (Cassell, London, 1995, 460 pages.) This is a useful reference work. Its main section is a directory of 20th century radicals, with about a three-quarter page description of each (322 names), preceded by a shorter directory of forerunners (38 names). The final section is a directory of groups and movements (84 entries). The book seems reasonably inclusive, but is perhaps too much influenced by identity politics. Also, except for about a dozen names (and one or two groups), anarchists are largely missing. Missing are Ward, Read, Landauer, Pannekoek, Gorter, Korsch, Parsons, DeCleyre, Rocker, Richards, Nettlau, Makhno, Durruti, Recluse, Grave, Mitchel, and more. Also missing are Bordiga, Negri, Labriola, Merleau-Ponty, Haywood, and many more. Yet he found room for the psychologists Horney, Rogers, and Maslow (were they ever part of the ‘radical’ movement?), and for John Stuart Mill, Roy Medvedev, and (!!) Alexandr Solzhenitsyn. Lenin and Trotsky got write-ups, but not Martov and Makhno. Isn’t it bad enough that the radicals get locked out totally from mainstream media? Do whole wings of the libertarian left have to get locked out of our own reference books too? Nevertheless, the book has much useful information on 359 people (I don’t count Solzhenitsyn), who are more or less on the ‘left’. The reference is international in scope, with entries from the US being limited to ninety. It is in this respect especially useful for acquainting US radicals with relatively unknown (here) radicals in the rest of the world. The editor also includes radicals in literature and the arts, the new social movements, environmentalism, and single-issue campaigns, categories that have been relatively neglected here, my focus being more generally on radical social philosophy and history.

Cabral, Amilcar, Revolution in Guinea: Selected Texts. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1969, 174 pages.) These texts cover the period from 1961 to 1969, and are concerned with the struggle for national liberation in the West African Portuguese colony. See also, Basil Davidson, The Liberation of Guine: Aspects of an African Revolution (Penguin, 1968, 169 pages). "The revolutionary struggle in Portuguese Guine began in earnest in September 1956, when six Africans formed the African Independence Party of Guine and the Cape Verde Islands (PAIGC). It sharpened after the Pidgiguiti massascre of August 1959, when fifty lives were lost as dock workers were forced back to work at gun-point by police. By 1963 the PAICG had finally taken to armed resistance: five years later it had liberated two thirds of the country." (jacket)

Camatte, Jacques, This World We Must Leave and other essays. (Autonomedia, Brooklyn, 1995, 256 pages.) An original radical thinker, coming out of left communism in Italy and France. He was first published in English in the US by Black & Red in Detroit. This collection also contains the famous pamphlets On Organization, and The Wandering of Humanity.

Carmichael, Stokely, and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. (Random House, New York, 1967, 198 pages. Sixties classic of the New Left and the Civil Rights Movement. For a survey of the black power movement, see the anthology edited by Floyd Barbour, The Black Power Revolt (Porter Sargent, Boston, 1968, 287 pages), which reprints historical as well as contemporary essays, and also has a good bibliography.

Carson, Rachael, Silent Spring [1962]. (Fawcett, New York, 1970, 304 pages.) The book that launched the environmental movement (in a manner of speaking, since, as a rule, movements launch books; books don’t launch movements). A study of the effect of chemical pollution, especially pesticides (for example, DDT) on wildlife and the environment. See also, Frank Graham, Since Silent Spring (1970), which surveyed the situation eight years later.

Carsten, F.L., Revolution in Central Europe 1918-1919. (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, 360 pages.) A study of the workers, soldiers, and peasants councils movements in Germany and Austria after WWI, and their defeat.

Carsten, F.L., The Rise of Fascism [1967]. (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1980, 279 pages.) This is a good readable introduction to fascism. Strong treatment of the Italian and German cases, but also discussion of fascist governments or movements in Austria, Finland, Hungary, Spain, Holland, Britain. Good bibliography. Three other standard texts are R. Palme Dutt, Fascism and Social Revolution: A Study of the Economics and Politics of the Extreme Stages of Capitalism in Decay (1934, 318 pages); Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944 (1944, 649 pages); and Ernst Nolte, Three Faces of Facism: Action Francaise, Italian Fascism, National Socialism (1963, 561 pages). See also, Eugen Weber, Varieties of Fascism (1964, 191 pages), and John Weiss, The Fascist Tradition: Radical Right-Wing Extremism in Modern Europe (1967, 151 pages). Walter Laqueur’s reader, Fascism: A Reader’s Guide (1976, 468 pages) is not really a bibliographical guide, but a set of essays by mostly orthodox academic social scientists on various aspects of fascism. (See other entries for Lee, Gross, Dobkowski.)

Carver, Terrell, Marx and Engels: The Intellectual Relationship. (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1983, 172 pages.) A study of the distortions of Marx’s work introduced by Engels’ interpretations. Argues that Engels was the true founder of the economistic and scientistic Orthodox Marxism of the Second International.

Castoriadis, Cornelius, Philosophy, Politics, Autonomy: Essays in Political Philosophy. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1991, 304 pages.) Castoriadis’ most accessible essays since his writings for Socialism or Babarism in the fifties in France. It is one of the strongest recent philosophical defenses of direct democracy, with a non-foundationalist theory of knowledge to match it. See also the collected essays in the World in Fragments: Writings on Politics, Society, Psychoanalysis, and the Imagination (Stanford University Press, 1997, 507 pages). In between his early ‘Socialism or Barbarism’ period and the late essays collected in the two volumes cited above, Castoriadis wrote a couple of rather intimidating tomes: The Imaginary Institution of Society [1975] (MIT Press, 1987, 418 pages); and Crossroads in the Labyrinth [1978] (MIT Press, 1984, 345 pages).

Castoriadis, Cornelius, Workers Councils and the Economics of a Self-Managed Society [1957]. (Solidarity, North London, 1972, 52 pages.) This is a pamphlet version of part two of Castoriadis’ essay, "The Content of Socialism" (part one, 1955, part three, 1958), originally published in the French journal, Socialisme ou Barbarie, of which Castoriadis was a founder and editor. It is a rare attempt to picture in concrete detail how a worker self-managed society would work. The pamphlet was republished by Philadelphia Solidarity in 1975, and then by Wooden Shoe bookstore in Philadelphia in 1984. The original essays are now available in English in his Political and Social Writings (3 vols).

Chapell, Steve, editor, The Alternative Building Sourcebook: Traditional, Natural, and Sustainable Building Products and Services. (Fox Maple Press, 1998, 140 pages). "Here’s a huge listing of alternative building sources for all different aspects of the building process. Contacts for design, planning, timber framing, log homes, straw bale, cob, tools, equipment, alternative heating systems, solar, and more." (Left Bank blurb)

Chossudovsky, Michel, The Globalisation of Poverty: Impacts of IMF and World Bank Reforms. (Zed Books, London, 1998, 280 pages.) A lucid, radical explanation of the workings of ruling class financial institutions and their devastating consequences. See also Walden Bello, Dark Victory: The United States, Structural Adjustment, and Global Poverty; Kevin Danaher, editor, 50 Years Is Enough: The Case against the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; Susan George, A Fate Worse Than Debt: The World Financial Crisis and the Poor (Food First, 1988, 300 pages); and Lori Wallach, Whose Trade Organization? There was an earlier study by Cheryl Payer, The Debt Trap: The International Monetary Fund and the Third World (Monthly Review Press, 1974, 251 pages). There is a large anthology, edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith, The Case Against the Global Economy and For a Turn Toward the Local (1996, 549 pages).

Churchill, Ward, Pacifism as Pathology: Reflections on the Role of Armed Struggle in North America. (Arbeiter Ring, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1998, 176 pages.) A provocative attack on the near hegemonic position the ideology of nonviolence has achieved in protest movements in North America. The book was answered by George Lakey, "Nonviolent Action as "the Sword That Heals": Challenging Ward Churchill’s "Pacifism as Pathology", a Report from Training For Change ( reports_0103_pacifismR.html).

Cipolla, Carlo M., Guns, Sails, and Empires: Technological Innovation and the Early Phases of European Expansion 1400-1700. (Pantheon Books, New York, 1965, 192 pages.) A terrific read. A study of "the dominance of maritime power over the land masses of Asia and the domination of the peoples of Europe who held the mastery of the sea.." Cipolla details the history and evolution of the manufacture of cannons and the building of ships, which culminated in the installation of light-weight iron cannons on fast and maneuverable sailing ships, and tells the story of the use of the new weapon system for building empire.

Clarkson, Frederick, Eternal Hostility: The Struggle between Theocracy and Democracy. (Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine, 1997, 277 pages.) An eye-opener, a wake-up call, for those on the Left, or anywhere else, who have heretofore ignored the growing power of the Christian Right and its threat to democracy and enlightenment values, with its culture wars and its drive for theocracy and a Christian Nation. Clarkson is thoroughly knowledgeable about this dangerous movement.

Cleaver, Harry, Reading Capital Politically. (University of Texas Press, Austin, 1979, 209 pages.) A contribution to ‘autonomous marxism’ by an American radical. See also Cleaver’s Autonomous Marxism: An Annotated Course Syllabus and Bibliography (roughly 106 printed pages), available only on the web at: Cleaver has also accumulated an extensive collection of materials, called the Archive of Autonomous Marxism, housed at the University of Texas Library, Austin.

Cockburn, Alexander, Corruptions of Empire: Life Studies and the Reagan Era. (Verso, London, 1987, 479 pages.) This is a collection of Cockburn’s journalism from the years 1975-1987. A British journalist, coming to the United States in 1972, Cockburn has been for the past thirty years one of America’s most provocatively radical commentators on current affairs. See also his Golden Age Is In Us: Journeys and Encouters 1987-1994. He is co-editor (with Jeffrey St. Clair) of the hard-hitting investigative newsletter, Counterpunch (now also an outstanding web site). Cockburn has co-authored, with Jeffrey St. Clair, a number of other books, including: Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press (1999); Five Days that Shook the World: Seattle and Beyond (2001); Al Gore: A User’s Manual (2000); Counterpunch: The Journalism that Rediscovers America (2002). He also wrote a book on chess: Idle Passion: Chess and the Dance of Death (Dutton, 1975).

Cohn, Norman, The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages [1957]. (Oxford University Press, New York, 1970, revised and expanded edition, 412 pages.) "Professor Cohn shows how the desire of the poor to improve the material condition of their lives became transfused between the twelth and the sixteenth century with prophecies of a prodigious final struggle between the hosts of Christ and Antichrist – from which another paradise or kingdom of the Saints was to emerge. ... the author analyzes the significance of these medieval strivings; and he suggests also how these phenomena relate to the revolutionary movements of our own time." (from the jacket)

Cohn-Bendit, Daniel and Gabriel, Obsolete Communism: The Left-Wing Alternative. (Andre Deutsch, London, 1968, 265 pages.) A famous text from the Revolution in Paris in 1968. Written in five weeks in the later half of that year, the book covers the Strategy and Nature of the Revolutionary Movement (the student revolt, and the workers); The Strategy of the State; the Stalinist Bureaucracy; and the Strategy and Nature of Bolshevism (Bolsheviks and the Makhno Movement and Kronstadt). It is one defining document, among many, from the French New Left, detailing its rejection of the Old Left, in favor of anarchism. Although the revolution of 1968 was worldwide in scope, the revolt in Paris was surely its epicenter. For some of the original papers generated by the revolt, see: Vladimir Fisera, editor, Writing on the Wall: France, May 1968: A Documentary Anthology (Allen & Busby, London, 1978, 327 pages). This anthology also has a bibliography covering archives, photographs, recordings, films, posters, documentation, quotations and wall writings, reports and direct accounts, fiction and drama, art, language and the media, and general analyses. Another first-hand, insider’s account is by Rene Vienet, Enrages and Situationists in the Occupation Movement, France, May ’68 [1968] (Autonomedia/Rebel Press, Brooklyn/London, 1992, 158 pages, illustrated with photos, comics, and wall grafitti). See also the famous Situationist pamphlet On the Poverty of Student Life (many editions). For posters, see Posters from the Revolution, Paris, May 1968 (texts and posters by Atelier Populaire, Latimer Trend & Co., Whitstable). There are many studies. See for example, Daniel Singer: Prelude to Revolution: France in May 1968 (1970, 434 pages); Andre Glucksmann, Strategy and Revolution in France 1968 (published in English in New Left Review, No. 52, Nov-Dec, 1968, pp. 67-121); Angelo Quatrocchi and Tom Nairn, The Beginning of the End: France, May 1968; Patrick Seale and Maureen McConville, Red Flag Black Flag: French Revolution 1968 (written by two British reporters from The Observer); and for a quasi-liberal academic study, Alain Touraine, The May Movement: Revolt and Reform: May 1968 – The Student Rebellion and Workers’ Strikes – the Birth of a Social Movement (1971, 373 pages). For a more comprehensive bibliography, see Laurence Wylie, Franklin D. Chu, and Mary Terrall, France: The Events of May-June 1968: A Critical Bibliography (Council for European Studies, Harvard, 1973, 188 pages).

Cole, G.D.H., Guild Socialism Restated [1920]. (Transaction Books, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1980, 224 pages.) A British non-marxian brand of socialism rooted in Carlyle, Ruskin, and Morris. Also being, however, a British adaptation of pre-WWI French revolutionary syndicalism, "which sought to transfer the powers of capital and government to self-governing associations of workers through the tactics of direct action" (from Vernon’s introduction). Guild socialism faded as a movement after the defeat of the general strike in Britain in 1926. Cole not only summarizes the political philosophy of guild socialism but gives a detailed description of how society could be reorganized along those lines.

Cole, G.D.H., A History of Socialist Thought. (Macmillan, London, 1962-1969, 5 vols in seven). The first two volumes of this massive history are most relevant for left libertarians. Volume One, The Forerunners 1789-1850 (346 pages, with extensive bibliography), covers developments from the French Revolution until after the Revolutions of 1848. The 26 chapters (minus introduction and conclusion) are: the great French Revolution and the Conspiracy of Gracchus Babeuf; Godwin, Paine, and Charles Hall; Saint-Simon; the Saint-Simonians; Fourier and Fourierism; Cabet and the Icarian Communists; Sismondi; Owen and Owenism, early phases; socialist economics in the 1820s; Owen and the trade unions, the end of Owenism; John Francis Bray; the People’s Charter; Blanqui and Blanquism; Louis Blanc and the organisation of labor; Buchez, Pecquer; Flora Tristan; Lamennais; Proudhon; German Socialism, the beginnings; Bruno Bauer, Hess, and Grun, the ‘true socialists’; the Communist Manifesto; Marx and Engels, marxism to 1850; Mazzini, the European Revolutions of 1848; the Christian Socialists. Volume Two, Marxism and Anarchism 1850-1890 (482 pages, with extensive bibliography), has fifteen chapters as follows: introductory, socialism after 1848; German socialism in the 1850s, Robertus and Marlo; the dawn of socialism in Russia, Belinsky, Herzen, and Chernyshevsky; Belgian socialism in the 1850s, Colins, Kats, and De Keyser; Lassalle; the First International in the ‘sixties; the Paris Commune; decline and fall of the First International; Bakunin; German socialism after Lassale; Marx and Engels; anarchists and anarchist-communists, Kropotkin; American socialism in the second half of the nineteenth century, Henry George and Daniel De Leon; the revival of British socialism, William Morris; socialism in the early 90s, conclusion. Volume Three is devoted to The Second International 1889-1914 (in two books). Volume Four is devoted to Communism and Social Democracy 1914-1931 (in two books). Volume Five is Socialism and Fascism 1931-1939.

Cornu, Auguste, The Origins of Marxian Thought. (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1957, 128 pages.) A brief, but lucid, intellectual history by a Hegelian Marxist. Covers Rationalism, Romanticism, Hegel, the Hegelian Left, and Marx. An excellent book.

Curl, John, History of Work Cooperation in America: Cooperatives, Cooperative Movements, Collectivity, and Communalism from Early America to the Present. (Homeward Press, Berkeley, 1980, 58 pages, 8x11 inches) Considering the overwhelming hegemony achieved by corporate values over American life during the past quarter century, it’s almost surreal to realize that there is also a long tradition of cooperation, mutual aid, and anti-capitalist culture here (or at least there was). This small book tells that story, as regards work.

Day, Dorothy, The Long Loneliness: The Autobiography of Dorothy Day. (Harper and Row, New York, 1952, 288 pages, introduction by Daniel Berrigan). "A nonviolent social radical of luminous personality ... founder of the Catholic Worker Movement and leader for more than fifty years in numerous battles for social justice.... unstinting in her commitment to peace, nonviolence, racial justice, and the cause of the poor and the outcast..." (jacket). For a biography, see William D. Miller, Dorothy Day (Harper and Row, 1982, 527 pages).

Debord, Guy, Society of the Spectacle [1967]. (Black & Red, Detroit, 1970, 1977, 120 pages.) A founding text of the French Situationist International, and a brilliant attempt to rethink and update the radical project. See also his assessment twenty years later, Comments on the Society of the Spectacle (Verso, London, 1990, 94 pages).

Debs, Eugene V., Writings and Speeches of Eugene V. Debs [1895-1927]. (Hermitage Press, New York, 1948, 486 pages.) A major turn-of-the-century American socialist. Was a five-time candidate for President (with the Socialist Party) in 1920 (from prison!), and received 800,000 votes. For studies see: Brommel, Bernard, Eugene V. Debs: Spokesman for Labor and Socialism. (Charles Kerr, 1978, 265 pages); and Ray Ginger, The Bending Cross: A Biography of Eugene Debs (1949).

DeCleyre, Voltairine, The First Mayday: The Haymarket Speeches 1895-1910. With an introduction, notes and bibliography by Paul Avrich. (Cienfuegos Press-Orkney, Libertarian Book Club-New York, and Soil of Liberty-Minneapolis, 1980, 53 pages.) Annual speeches given by DeCleyre for fifteen years in memory of the Haymarket martyrs. Passionate, powerful oratory by one of America’s greatest anarchists. See also her Selected Works (Mother Earth Publishing, New York, 1914, 466 pages), and Paul Avrich’s outstanding biography, An American Anarchist: The Life of Voltairine de Cleyre.

Devlin, Bernadette, The Price of My Soul. (Vintage, New York, 1969, 224 pages.) The story of the protest movement which put Northern Ireland in the world’s headlines in 1968-69, by the 22-year old member of Parliament.

Dewey, John, Liberalism and Social Action (Putnam, New York, 1935, 93 pages), The Public and Its Problems (Henry Holt, New York, 1927, 224 pages), Freedom and Culture (Putnam, 1939, 176 pages), A Common Faith (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1934, 87 pages), How We Think (D.C. Heath, Boston, 1910, 224 pages), and Reconstruction in Philosophy [1920] (Beacon Press, Boston, 1948, 168 pages). These are six of Dewey’s shorter, more popular books. He was America’s greatest philosopher of freedom and democracy, and must be included on any radical reading list (much vilified by marxists-leninists however). A near socialist of sorts. His big books are about art as experience, experience and nature, education, logic, human nature. For studies, see Sidney Hook, John Dewey: An Intellectual Portrait (1939); Richard Bernstein, John Dewey (1981); and more recently, William Caspary, Dewey on Democracy (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 2000, 256 pages).

Divoky, Diane, editor, How Old Will You Be In 1984? Expressions of Outrage from the High School Free Press. (Avon, New York, 1969, 350 pages.) An anthology of more than 250 selections of writings and graphics from the high school free press (i.e., movement or ‘underground’ newspapers) across the country (estimated at 500 publications by the editor). It is often forgotten the rebellion in high schools was a strong component of the movement of the sixties. (See also the entry for Marc Libarle.)

Dobkowski, Michael N., and Isidor Wallimann, editors, Radical Perspectives on the Rise of Fascism in Germany, 1919-1945. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1968, 334 pages.) Essays on the destruction of the workers’ movement, terror and demagoguery, the collapse of the Weimar Republic, state and classes, what produces fascism, theories of fascism, and so forth. Has a good bibliography. See also, Leon Trotsky, The Struggle Against Fascism in Germany (Pathfinder Press, 1971, 479 pages). The standard, big history of Nazi Germany is William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1960, 1245 pages). (See other entries for Carsten, Gross, Lee.)

Dockes, Pierre, Medieval Slavery and Liberation. (Metheun, London, 1982, 291 pages.) A study of how and why ancient slavery came to an end in the Middle Ages. Rejects deterministic accounts, and shows instead how slave revolts ended the practice. Regards slavery as "the primary relationship of exploitation, from which serfdom and wage-labour have stemmed." See also, Rodney Hilton, Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements of the English Rising of 1381.

Dolgoff, Sam, The Cuban Revolution: A Critical Perspective. (Black Rose Book, Montreal, 1976, 199 pages.) An anarchist discusses the Cuban Revolution. A welcome break from the near unanimous acclaim for Cuba among American radicals and progressives. See also Frank Fernandez, Cuban Anarchism: The History of a Movement (See Sharp Press, 2001).

Dolgoff, Sam, editor, The Anarchist Collectives: Workers’ Self-management in the Spanish Revolution 1936-1939. (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1974, 192 pages.) A great introduction to attempts at self-government made during the greatest revolution so far. Besides Dolgoff, essays by Leval, Souchy, Santilan, Pierats, and others. Covers both industrial and rural collectives, plus other topics (land, money, exchange). (See also the entries for Vernon Richards, Abel Paz, Ackelsberg, and Broue.)

Dollimore, Jonathan, and Alan Sinfield, editors, Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism. (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1985, 244 pages.) This book "disallows the idea of Shakespeare as a universal genius whose work is great precisely to the extent that it transcends politics and history." Argues instead that "Shakespeare is, and always was, political." (jacket) Discusses such themes as colonialism, authority and its subversion, sexuality, patriarchy, subordinate cultures. See also, Terry Eagleton, William Shakespeare (Blackwell, Oxford, 1986, 114 pages).

Domhoff, G. William, Who Rules America? [1967]. An empirical study. Domhoff names names and organizations. He follows the interconnections between a social (ruling) class, corporate boards, think tanks, military, police, government, foundations, and so forth. Domhoff has periodically updated this study, the latest being the 4th edition (Mayfield Publishing, Palo Alto, California, 2001, 244 pages). See also other books of his: The Powers That Be: Processes of Ruling Class Domination in America (1978); The Power Elite and the State: How Policy is Made in America (1990); Power Structure Research (Sage Publications, 1980, 270 pages, editor); Who Really Rules: New Haven and Community Power Reexamined (1978); and State Autonomy or Class Dominance: Case Studies on Policy Making in America (1996).

Dorfman, Ariel, The Empire’s Old Clothes: What the Lone Ranger, Babar, and Other Innocent Heroes do to our Minds. (Pantheon Books, New York, 1983, 225 pages.) Analyzes how Donald Duck, the Lone Ranger, Mickey Mouse, Superman, etcetera, shore up the cultural hegemony of Empire. An earlier book (co-authored with Armand Mattelart) developed the same theme: How to Read Donald Duck: Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic.

Draper, Hall, editor, Berkeley: The New Student Revolt. (Grove Press, New York, 1965, 246 pages, introduced by Mario Savio.) The story of the student rebellion at the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the fall of 1964. The first part of the book (pages 9-174) is an account written by Draper, a participant in the events. The second part consists of other speeches, articles, and documents about the revolt, including short essays by Mario Savio and James Petras, and position papers issued by the Free Speech Movement that emerged then. See also, Michael V. Miller and Susan Gilmore, editors, Revolution at Berkeley: The Crisis in American Education. (Dell, New York, 1965, 348 pages), consisting of twenty-three essays by participants and commentators on the student revolts and sit-ins at the University of California-Berkeley in the fall of 1964, including pieces by Mario Savio, Paul Krassner, Paul Goodman, James Petras, Hal Draper, and others, including some critics; Sheldon S. Wolin and John N. Schaar, The Berkeley Rebellion and Beyond: Essays on Politics and Education in the Technological Society (New York Review Book, 1970, 158 pages); Alan Copeland and Nikki Arai, editors, People’s Park (Ballantine Books, New York, 1969, 125 pages), a book of photographs, with a chronology); and W.J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War: The Nineteen Sixties (Oxford, 1989).

Duberman, Martin, Stonewall. (Dutton, New York, 1994, 330 pages.) The story of the first great revolt in Greeenwich Village in New York City in June 1969 that marked the beginning of the gay rights movement. Sparked by a police raid, which were common.

DuBois, W.E.B., Black Reconstruction: An Essay toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860 [1935]. (University of Notre Dame Press, 2001, 776 pages.) A key book by one of America’s greatest and most prolific radical intellectuals. See also the Souls of Black Folks [1903], John Brown [1909], and The Autobiography [1968]. A recent study is by Manning Marable, W.E.B. DuBois: Black Radical Democrat (Twayne Publishers, Boston, 1986, 285 pages). There is the big, new two-volume study, W.E.B. Dubois, by David Levering Lewis (Henry Holt, 1994, 2000), who also has edited a huge reader (Henry Hold, 1994, 801 pages).

Dunayevskaya, Raya, Russia as State-Capitalist Society [1942-46]. (A News and Letters Pamphlet, Detroit, 1973, 27 pages.) An early analysis, from within marxism, of Russia as a state-capitalist society, by a writer of the ‘Johnson-Forest Tendency’ (i.e. James, Dunayevskaya, and others), and an advocate of ‘marxist-humanism’. See also the similar text by her comrade, C.L.R. James, State Capitalism and World Revolution [1950] Both texts were occasioned by their authors’ breaks with the Fourth International, and their repudiation of Trotsky’s analysis. See also, Tony Cliff, State Capitalism in Russia (Pluto Press, 1974, 309 pages); and Adam Buick and John Crump, State Capitalism: The Wages System under New Management (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1986, 165 pages). For an earlier survey of the concept see: W. Jerome and A. Buick, "Soviet State Capitalism? The History of an Idea," Survey, No. 62, 1967, pages 58-71.

Duncan, Isadora, Isadora Speaks. (Charles H. Kerr, Chicago, 1994, 153 pages.) Edited and introduced by Franklin Rosemont. Writings and speeches of the inventor of ‘modern dance’. A free-spirited radical. An enemy of ballet. Favored free and natural movement. This anthology "features her outspoken views on America, revolutionary Russia, education and the arts, life with Russian poet Serge Esenin, love, woman’s emancipation, and dance as a radical force capable of transforming the world and changing life." (from the jacket) For a study see Walter Terry, Isadora Duncan: Her Life, Her Art, Her Legacy (Dodd, Mead, New York, 1963, 174 pages, illustrated with photos and drawings).

Duveau, Georges, 1848: The Making of a Revolution. (Random House, New York, 1967, 254 pages.) Introduced by George Rude. A good introduction to this first systemic revolution against capitalism. Follow up readings might include: Karl Marx, Class Struggles in France 1848-1850 and The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte; Frederick Engels, Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany; Alexis de Tocqueville, Recollections: The French Revolution of 1848; Aleksandr Herzen, Letters from France and Italy 1847-1852. Two good general histories are: Priscilla Robertson, Revolutions of 1848 (1952); and Peter Stearns, 1848: The Revolutionary Tide in Europe (1974). For further studies, you might want to consult: C. Edmund Maurice, The Revolutionary Movement of 1848-9 in Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Germany [1887] (Greenwood, 1969); P.H. Noyes, Organization and Revolution: Working-Class Associations in the German Revolutions of 1848-1849 (1966); Jonathan Sperber, Rhineland Radicals: The Democratic Movement and the Revolution of 1848-1849 (1991); Oscar J. Hammen, The Red ‘48ers: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1969); Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Articles from the Neue Rheinische Zeitung 1848-49 (1972); Lewis Namier, 1848: The Revolution of the Intellectuals (1946).

Eastman, Max, Enjoyment of Laughter. (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1948, 367 pages.) This is not a joke book, but a comprehensive, scholarly study of the nature of humor, by the former editor of The Masses (1913-17) and The Liberator (1917-22).

Easton, Bob, and Lloyd Kahn, editors, Shelter. (Shelter Publications, 2000, 176 pages.) "I’ve spent hours looking through this oversized book full of houses people built by hand. From treehouses to domes to ancient dwellings from around the world, you’ll be captivated by the pictures, discussions, and building information in this reprint of a classic from 1973." (Left Bank blurb) (See also other entry referrals under Turner.)

Edelman, Robert, Proletarian Peasants: The Revolution of 1905 in Russia’s Southwest. (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1987, 195 pages.) A scholarly study, beginning with a survey of schools of thought on peasants and peasant revolts, sketches the economy and society of the right-bank Ukraine, then details the strike movement and peasant revolution. See also, the mainstream popular history, heavily illustrated, by David Floyd, Russia in Revolt: 1905: The First Crack in Tsarist Power (1969, 126 pages).

Edgley, Roy and Richard Osborne, Radical Philosophy Reader. (Verso, London, 1985, 410 pages.) A collection of articles from Radical Philosophy, the magazine of the Radical Philosophy Group in Britain. The magazine was launched in 1972 and is still being published. This collection has articles on reason as dialectic, truth and practice, Derrida, Althusser, discourse fever, the relevance of Freud, and so forth.

Edmond, Wendy, and Suzie Fleming, editors, All Work and No Pay: Women, Housework, and the Wages Due. (Falling Wall Press/Power of Women Collective, London, 1975, 127 pages.) A short international anthology which collects together essays generated by and related to the Wages for Housework Campaign. "If women were paid for all they do, There’d be a lot of wages due." (See also the entry for Malos below.)

Edwards, Stewart, The Paris Commune 1871. (Quadrangle Books, Chicago, 1971, 417 pages.) A comprehensive history based on modern research. The best book to read first I believe. Includes a chronology of events, a glossary of people and organizations, and a bibliography. See also, Eugene Schulkind, editor, The Paris Commune of 1871: The View from the Left (documents and a few interpretative essays, with bibliography, published by Jonathan Cape, London, 1972, 308 pages). Three other general histories are: Lissagary, The Commune of 1871 [writen by a communard in 1876] (1902, 1969); F. Jellinek, The Paris Commune of 1871 [1937] (1971); and Edward S. Mason, The Paris Commune: An Episode in the History of the Socialist Movement (Macmillan, 1930). The writings of Marx and Engels on the commune were collected in On the Paris Commune (Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1971, 357 pages).

Ehrlich, Howard J., editor, Reinventing Anarchy (Routledge, London, 1979, 371 pages), and Reinventing Anarchy, Again. (AK Press, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1996, 387 pages). (Note: There is a carry over of nine essays (out of 37) from the first book to the second (34 essays), so the two editions are mostly separate books.) Nine of the new essays in the second book have been reprinted from the journal Social Anarchism, with the rest being taken from various sources like Our Generation, Raven, Fifth Estate, Black Rose, and so forth. Reinventing Anarchy, Again is the next most recent of the ten anthologies on anarchism I am aware of. The editor selected only new material from practicing anarchists. It is divided into eight sections: What is Anarchism, The State and Social Organization, Moving Toward Anarchist Society, Anarchafeminism, Work, The Culture of Anarchism, The Liberation of Self, and Reinventing Anarchist Tactics. Another recent anothology is Jon Purkis and James Bowen, editors, Twenty-First Century Anarchism: Unorthodox Ideas for a New Millennium (Cassell, London, 1997, 214 pages), with articles on human nature, sex, direct action, social welfare, etcetera. A somewhat earlier anthology is David Goodway, editor, For Anarchism: History, Theory, and Practice (Routledge, London, 1989, 278 pages), with essays on cooperatives, the new social movements, Italian anarchism, human nature, Barcelona rent strike of 1931, contract theory, theory of history, etcetera. There is also David E. Apter and James Joll, editors, Anarchism Today (1972, 242 pages); and George Woodcock’s anthology from 1977, The Anarchist Reader. Two anthologies from the mid-sixties are: Leonard Krimerman and Lewis Perry, editors, Patterns of Anarchy; and Irving Horowitz, editor, The Anarchists. There is Daniel Guerin’s large anthology from 1980, No Gods No Masters (Ak Press, Edinburgh, 1998, two volumes, 276 and 294 pages). This anthology covers Stirner, Proudhon, Bakunin, Guillaume, Kropotkin, Malatesta, Henry, Pelloutier, Pouget, Voline, Makhno, Durruti, direct action, Spanish collectives and civil war, and Krondstadt, and includes many obscure essays as well as excerpts from major texts. Finally, there is Marshall S. Shatz, editor, Essential Works of Anarchism (Bantam Press, 1971, 604 pages), which has substantial selections from William Godwin, Max Stirner, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Michael Bakunin, Peter Kropotkin, Leo Tolstoy, Emma Goldman, Alexander Berkman, Rudolf Rocker, Josiah Warren, Voline, Franz Borkenau, Herbert Read, Daniel Guerin, Daniel and Gabriel Cohn-Bendit, Roel van Duyn, and Paul and Percival Goodman.

Ellsberg, Daniel, Papers on the War. (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1972, 309 pages.) This is not the story of Ellsberg’s release of the Pentagon Papers (except for a brief sketch in the Introduction), but essays about the Vietnam War based partly on those papers, since Ellsberg was one of the first to study them. The papers were ordered collected by Robert McNamara to document the history of the war. Ellsberg, who was working on McNamara’s project at the Rand Corporation, made photocopies and started releasing them to Congress and the Public in October 1969. They were published eventually as The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of Decision-Making on Vietnam (Beacon Press, 1971, four volumes, edited by Mike Gravel; a fifth volume contained critical essays, edited by Noam Chomsky). See also, Sanford Ungar, The Papers and The Papers: An Account of the Legal and Political Battle over The Pentagon Papers (Dutton, New York, 1972, 319 pages).

Engels, Frederick, The Peasant War in Germany [1850]. (Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1956, 245 pages.) An account of the peasant revolt of 1525 at the dawn of the modern age.

Epstein, Samuel S., The Politics of Cancer Revisited. (East Ridge Press, Fremont Center, New York, 1998, 770 pages, including a reprint of the 1978 book, pages 1-321.) A blistering indictment of the National Cancer Institute and the Americn Cancer Society for their responsibility in losing the war on cancer, by the nation’s leading expert on the causes, prevention, and treatment of the disease. The causes of cancer are well known, and have been for decades. It could be prevented. Prevention is blocked though by corporate America, since it is inconvenient for profit-taking. A blockbuster book, heavily researched and documented.

Fanon, Frantz, The Wretched of the Earth. (Grove Press, New York, 1963, 255 pages.) The great sixties classic by the radical Martiniquean psychiatrist, shaped politically by the Algerian Revolution, who analyzed the psychic violence of colonialism. Other works include: A Dying Colonialism; Toward an African Revolution;and White Skin Black Masks. For a biography, see Irene Gendzier, Frantz Fanon.

Farmer, Paul, Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues. (University of California Press, 1999, 375 pages). Based on his experience working in rural Haiti and the slums of Peru, Farmer details the effects of poverty on health. He does not link the poverty to capitalism, however, but only to a simplistic rich versus poor analysis, and to what he regards as misguided and mistaken US foreign policies. Still, this is a passionate protest against unnecessary illness, suffering, and death by a brilliant doctor.

Feuerbach, Ludwig, The Fiery Brook: Selected Writings of Ludwig Feuerbach. (Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1972, 302 pages, with a long introduction by the editor, Zawar Hanfi.) A key figure in the Hegelian Left, and an early influence on Marx. Marx penned a critique of Feuerbach’s materialism, in the famous eleven theses. For an enlightening exposition of the significance of these theses, see Ernst Bloch, "Changing the World: Marx’s Theses on Feuerbach", pages 54-105 in Bloch’s On Karl Marx. Other books by Feuerbach in English are: The Essence of Christianity (Harper Torchbooks, 1957, 339 pages); Principles of the Philosophy of the Future (Bobbs-Merrill, 1966, 85 pages); Thoughts on Death and Immortality (California University Press, 1980, 261 pages); The Essence of Faith According to Luther (Harper & Row, 1967, 127 pages). Frederick Engels wrote an essay on Feuerbach, Ludwig Feuerback and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy. (See also the entries for Stepelevich, Hook, Cornu.)

Feyerabend, Paul, Science in a Free Society. (New Left Books, London, 1978, 221 pages.) This is his easiest book. Feyerabend (1924-1994), claiming to be an anarchist philosopher of science, stirred up a lot of commotion in that field. He had been a student of Karl Popper and subsequently had sort of a running public debate with him and his works, doing a pretty thorough demolition job on Popper, to my mind. Popper tried to codify what he thought to be the scientific method. Feyerabend tried to show that this codification was nonsense, and that it didn’t describe the actual practices of scientists. Feyerabend mainly sought to take science down off its pedestal, and to show that it did not have an unassailable ground or foundation which automatically gave it priority over all other ways of knowing. He sought to show that science was a social tradition or practice, endorsed by specific individuals, groups, cultures, rejected by others, and that there were no outside, objective, or empiricist criteria for proving its superiority over other traditions. Therefore, he argued that which tradition to follow remained a matter of debate, dispute, argument, preference, or choice, claiming "that fundamental debates between traditions are debates between laymen which can and should be settled by no higher authority than again the authority of laymen, i.e., democratic councils." His first big substantive work was Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge (Verso, 1975, 339 pages). His papers have been collected in Farewell to Reason (Verso, London, 1987, 327 pages); and in Philosophical Papers (Cambridge University Press, 1981, two volumes, 353 and 255 pages). He published Three Dialogues on Knowledge in 1991 (Blackwell, 167 pages), and an autobiography (posthumous) in 1995, Killing Time (University of Chicago Press, 192 pages). Also posthumously published was Conquest of Abundance: A Tale of Abstraction versus the Richness of Being (University of Chicago Press, 1999, 285 pages).

Fisher, Lillian Estelle, The Last Inca Revolt 1780-1783. (University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1966, 426 pages.) A book for those who might have thought that Inca resistance to the European invasion was crushed already under Pizarro. Two and a half centuries later they were still fighting, in a revolt that reached from Venezuela in the north, through Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, to northern Argentina in the south. And of course they are still fighting. See also, Alfred Metraux, The History of the Incas (Pantheon, 1969, 205 pages), an excellent short history, with attention to the colonization of Peru by the Spaniards.

Fleming, Marie, The Geography of Freedom: The Odyssey of Elisee Reclus. (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1988, 246 pages, introduction by George Woodcock.) Reclus (1830-1905) was a French geographer and anarchist. He was arrested during the Paris Commune and exiled to Switzerland. Participated in the First International. Was an originator of ‘human geography’ and a precursor of the science of ecology and radical environmentalism. Was a vegetarian, out of a wish not to kill animals. Published scattered articles in the English press. No major books ever translated.

Foner, Philip S., editor, We, the Other People: Alternative Declarations of Independence by Labor Groups, Farmers, Woman’s Rights Advocates, Socialists, and Blacks 1829-1975. (University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1976, 205 pages.) The next time someone accuses you of being ‘anti-american’ for criticizing the government, hand them this book.

Foner, Philip S., editor, The Autobiographies of the Haymarket Martyrs [1969]. (Monad Press, New York, 1977, 198 pages.) Brief autobiographies solicited and published by the Knights of Labor, a weekly labour journal in Chicago. The eight essays, by Albert Parsons, August Spies, Adolph Fischer, George Engel, Michael Schwar, Samuel Fielden, Oscar Neebe, and Louis Lingg, open a window into the anarchist milieu in Chicago in 1886.

Fotopoulos, Takis, Towards an Inclusive Democracy: The Crisis of the Growth Economy and the Need for a New Liberatory Project. (Cassell, London, 1997, 401 pages.) An outstanding attempt to redefine the radical project. Inspired by, but not limited to, libertarian municipalism. After demolishing capitalist ‘development’ theory, Fotopoulos outlines a society based on direct democracy and "a stateless, moneyless, and marketless economy", as well as a philosophy "beyond objectivism, irrationalism, and relativism" to go with it. Fotopoulos is founder and editor of one of the most important contemporary journals of radical social philosophy, Democracy and Nature.

Fourier, Charles, The Utopian Vision of Charles Fourier: Selected Texts on Work, Love, and Passionate Attraction. Translated, edited, and with an introduction by Jonathan Beecher and Richard Bienvenu. (Beacon Press, Boston, 1971, 427 pages.) A radical visionary. A so-called ‘utopian socialist’ (a perjorative term applied by Marx). Only two of his books are available complete in English (I think), the 1851 translation of Passions of the Human Soul and the recent Cambridge edition of The Theory of the Four Movements. This Beacon Press collection of texts is accompanied by a long introduction and a bibliographical essay. For the intellectual, historical context, see Frank Manuel, The Prophets of Paris (Turgot, Condorcet, Saint-Simon, Fourier, Comte). A recent full-scale study is Jonathan Beecher, Charles Fourier: The Visionary and His World (California University Press, 1986, 601 pages).

Freedman, Russell, with photographs by Lewis Hine, Kids at Work: Lewis Hine and the Crusade Against Child Labor. (Clarion Books, New York, 1994, 104 pages). Astounding, heart-rending pictures of children working, a practice that has again been burgeoning worldwide in recent decades. A shame though that Hine either didn’t take (or they weren’t included here) pictures of African, Asian, or Latino children.

Gallagher, Dorothy, All The Right Enemies: The Life and Murder of Carlo Tresca. (Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1988, 321 pages.) A major figure of Italian-American anarchism. "Carlo Tresca [1879-1943] – labor spellbinder, anarcho-syndicalist hero, fiercest voice of Italian-American antifascism, courageous foe of communist tyranny, champion of the working class everywhere – was one of the great men of the American Left. But only now can we begin to read about him, and only now, thanks to Dorothy Gallagher, can we begin to trace the extraordinary mysteries of his atrocious martyr’s death." (Paul Berman on the jacket)

Gastil, John, Democracy in Small Groups: Participation, Decision Making, and Communication. (New Society Press, Philadelphia, 1993, 213 pages.) A helpful book, although somewhat too enamored with mainstream social science, and relatively unaware of anarchist literature. Informed though with real life experience. An interesting chapter on "More than one way to decide," on decision-making in small groups. Discusses "Democracy in our daily lives".

Gelbspan, Ross, The Heat Is On: The High Stakes Battle Over Earth's Threatened Climate. (Addison Wesley, New York, 1997, 278 pages.) A riveting account of the debate over global warming, and the politics behind the conservative denial. See also Gale E. Christianson, Greenhouse: The 200-Year Story of Global Warming (1999).

Genovese, Eugene D., The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South. (Vintage, New York, 1967, 304 pages.) A marxist scholar looks at the slave south. See also his book, The World the Slaveholders Made (1969). Two standard older works on slavery are: David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1966), and Stanley Elkins, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (1959).

Georgakas, Dan, and Marvin Surkin, Detroit: I Do Mind Dying. (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1975, 250 pages.) An account of the urban insurrection in Detroit in 1967, and subsequent struggles. Covers the Detroit Revolutionary Union Movement, the League of Revolutionary Black Workers, the Black Workers Congress, and more. See also, Gerald Horne, Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s (Virginia University Press, 1995)

George, Charles H., Five Hundred Years of Revolution: European Radicals from Hus to Lenin. (Charles Kerr, Chicago, 1988, 304 pages, 3rd edition.) Covers: Hussites, Taborites, the New Model Army, Levellers, Ranters, Jacobins, the Committee of Public Safety, the Conspiracy of Equals, Forty-Eighters, Communards, Bolsheviks, and Workers’ Councils. With texts from Meister Eckhart, Thomas Muntzer, Oliver Cromwell, John Lilburne, Gerrard Winstanley, John Milton, Maximilien Robespierre, Francois Babeuf, Marx, Lenin, Rosa Luxembury, Ignazio Silone, Milovan Djilas, and others. See also George Woodcock, A Hundred Years of Revolution: 1848 and After (Porcupine Press, London, 1948, 286 pages).

Godwin, William, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Its Influence on Modern Morals and Happiness [1793]. (Penguin Books, London, 1985, 825 pages.) The earliest founding text of classic nineteenth century anarchism. For studies see: George Woodcock, William Godwin (Porcupine Press, London, 1946, 266 pages); and Mark Philip, Godwin’s Political Justice (Cornell University Press, 1986, 278 pages).

Goldberg, Harvey, editor, American Radicals: Some Problems and Personalities. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1957, 308 pages.) Essays on John Jay Chapman, Theodore Dreiser, Heywood Broun, Henry Demarest Lloyd, Robert LaFollette, John Brown, John Peter Altgeld, Vito Marcantonio, Eugene Debs, William Haywood, Danile DeLeon, Walter Weyl, Thorstein Veblen, and Charles Beard. As you’ve probably noticed, except for Haywood, an IWW syndicalist, no anarchists are included. Typical, for a Marxist press. The introduction is co-written by William Appleton Williams.

Goldman, Emma, Anarchism and Other Essays [1917]. (Dover, New York, 1969, 270 pages.) Classic essays on anarchism, prisons, violence, drama, patriotism, education, religion, marriage, and more, by a great American anarchist, an unrelenting agitator. See also Red Emma Speaks, edited by Alix Kates Shulman. A good biography is by Richard Drinnon, Rebel in Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman (University of Chicago Press, 1961, 349 pages). Alix Shulman wrote a junior level biography: To The Barricades: The Anarchist Life of Emma Goldman. There is an Emma Goldman papers project now at the University of California, Berkeley. Her essays on the Spanish Revolution have been collected as Visions on Fire, edited by David Porter (Commonground Press, 1985, 346 pages). Her famous autobiography is Living My Life (2 vols, Dover). She also wrote a book on drama: The Social Significance of Modern Drama (1914). She wrote two books on the Bolshevik Revolution: My Disillusionment in Russia, and My Further Disillusionment with Russia (1923). Her correspondence with Alexander Berkman is available in Nowhere at Home: Letters from Exile of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman (1975, 282 pages). Counterpoint Press has recently published Anarchy! An Anthology of Emma Goldman’s Mother Earth, edited by Peter Glassgold (2001, 464 pages).

Goldmann, Lucien, The Human Sciences and Philosophy. (Jonathan Cape, London, 1969, 156 pages.) Radical social philosopher and literary critic. This small book is a reply to structuralism in German and French social science. Goldmann was a Bucharest-born (but writing and working in France) originator of radical cultural studies (from a more or less hegelian marxist perspective), playing a role in France similar to the one Raymond Williams played (without the hegelianism) in Britain. His other books in English include: Racine [1956] (Rivers Press, Cambridge England, 1972, 104 pages, with an introduction by Raymond Williams); Cultural Creation [1971] (Telos Press, St. Louis, 1976, 174 pages); Essays on Method in the Sociology of Literature (Telos Press, 1980, 158 pages); The Hidden God: A Study of Tragic Vision in the ‘Pensees’ of Pascal and the Tragedies of Racine (Routledge, 1964, 426 pages); Lukacs and Heidegger: Towards a New Philosophy (Routledge, 1977, 112 pages); and Immanuel Kant [1945, 1967] (New Left Books, London, 1971, 236 pages). For a study, see Mary Evans, Lucien Goldmann: An Introduction (1981).

Goldner, Loren, Communism is the Material Human Community: Amadeo Bordiga Today [1991]. (Collective Action Notes, Baltimore, 1997, pamphlet, 28 pages.) This pamphlet represents an effort to recover Bordiga for revolutionaries in the English-speaking world. Bordiga, said to be the last Western revolutionary to tell Stalin off to his face and live (in 1926), was a contemporary of Gramsci, but followed a different path, and developed a unique interpretation of the Russian revolution and a unique brand of marxism. He believed that capitalism equals the agrarian revolution. There is quite a bit of Bordiga in English on the Internet, accessible through John Gray’s web site at

Gonzales, Juan, Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America. (Viking Penguin, New York, 2000, 325 pages.) A major history of the Anglo-Hispanic encounter from the 16th century on, by a radical journalist, a founder in the sixties of the Young Lords Party, and a current co-host of Pacifica’s Democracy Now! radio news program.

Goodman, Paul and Percival, Communitas: Means of Livelihood and Ways of Life [1947}. (Vintage, New York, 1960, 248 pages.) A classic in the tradition of anarchist urban planning. One of the most widely read anarchist texts in the sixties. For those who would like to explore this topic further, see the big study by Peter Hall (listed below).

Goodman, Paul, Drawing the Line: Political Essays. (Free Life Editions, New York, 1977, 272 pages.) A great introduction to Goodman. Contains the famous scolding Goodman delivered to the top brass of the military-industrial complex in the State Department Auditorium in October 1967. How times have changed. Can you even imagine an anarchist being invited to talk in the State Department to such an audience today, let alone being allowed to tell them off? Goodman’s most famous book in the sixties was Growing Up Absurd. Another good collection is Utopian Essays and Practical Proposals (1951). Two more recent collections of reprinted essays, both edited by Taylor Stoehr, are Decentralizing Power: Paul Goodman’s Social Criticism (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1994, 204 pages), and Format and Anxiety: Paul Goodman Critiques the Media (Autonomedia, Brooklyn, 1995, 250 pages). Goodman wrote about almost everything. He has a book of short stories, and collected essays on language, education, literary criticism, American culture, and psychology. A great American anarchist.

Gordon, Cyrus H., Before Columbus: Links Between the Old World and Ancient America. (Crown Publishers, New York, 1971, 224 pages.) This is a review of the evidence – from sculpture, inscriptions, language, myths, culture, megaliths – for sea contact, over both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, between the New World and the Old, in antiquity. For further evidence of worldwide sea faring in antiquity, see Charles H. Hapgood, Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings: Evidence of Advanced Civilization in the Ice Age (Dutton, New York, 1966, 276 pages).

Gorter, Herman, Open Letter to Comrade Lenin: A Reply to ‘Left-Wing Communism, an Infantile Disorder’ (by Lenin) [1920]. (Originally published in Workers’ Dreadnought, London. Republished finally as a Wildcat pamphlet in London, September 1989, 41 pages.) A Dutch comrade of Anton Pannekoek, Gorter wrote this reply to Lenin’s attack immediately. It stands as one of the first and most vigorous rejections of Bolshevism by Europe’s anarchists. See also, D.A. Smart, editor, Pannekoek and Gorter’s Marxism (Pluto Press, 1978, 176 pages), which contains the only two other essays in English by Gorter I am aware of: "The Origins of Nationalism in the Proletariat," and The Organisation of the Proletariat’s Class Struggle," as well as three essays by Pannekoek, and a long introduction by Smart.

Gorz, Andre, Paths to Paradise: On the Liberation from Work. (Pluto Press, London, 1985, 120 pages.) This wonderful mid-eighties book by one of Europe’s most iconoclastic French radical thinkers helped bring the reduction of the work week back as a goal for the labor movement and radical agitation. Gorz discusses a way out of capitalism, the abolition of wage labor, the establishment of a social income, the reduction of work hours spent in market relations, and the increase of the autonomous sphere, plus other proposals. Similar themes are developed in his controversial book, Farewell to the Working Class: An Essay on Post-Industrial Socialism (Pluto Press, London, 1982, 152 pages).

Gorz, Andre, Critique of Economic Reason (Verso, London, 1988, 250 pages), and Capitalism, Socialism, Ecology (Verso, London, 1994, 147 pages). These two late books pretty much capture the unique politics that Gorz had worked out over the decades, in his efforts to refurbish the radical project. His other books, aside from the two mentioned above, include: The Traitor (1958); Strategy for Labor (1964); Socialism and Revolution (1967); Ecology as Politics (1975).

Gramsci, Antonio, Critical Notes on an Attempt at Popular Sociology [written between 1929 and 1935]. Reprinted in Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks (International Publishers, New York, 1971, pp. 419-472). One of Gramsci’s most sustained critiques of orthodox ("vulgar") marxism, by means of a review of Nikolai Bukharin’s Theory of Historical Materialism. Gramsci (Italian), one of the greatest radical social philosophers ever, commands an extensive secondary literature now. See for example, Carl Boggs, Gramsci’s Marxism; A Pozzolini, Antonio Gramsci: An Introduction to his Thought; John Cammett, Antonio Gramsci and the Origins of Italian Communism; Chantal Mouffe, editor, Gramsci and Marxist Theory; or Giuseppe Fiori, Antonio Gramsci: Life of a Revolutionary. There is a three volume collection of his writings (by International Publishers). The Prison Notebooks are being published in full in English by Columbia University Press. For the overall background for Gramsci, see Paul Piconne, Italian Marxism.

Green, Philip, Retrieving Democracy: In Search of Civic Equality. (Rowman and Allanheld, Totowa, New Jersey, 1985, 278 pages.) A creative effort to map a way out of capitalism, while remaining within a representative democracy. Offers a critique of the existing pseudo-democracy. Original treatments of the division of labor, socialization of the means of production, planning and accumulation, participation and representation. An excellent book, except for his rejection of direct democracy. Complains that he is a theorist without a movement (this was in 1985), humorously inverting Marx’s famous eleventh thesis, by saying that "The philosophers can only interpret the world in our various ways; someone else will have to change it."

Greenberg, David, editor, Crime and Capitalism: Readings in Marxist Criminology. (Mayfield Publishing, Palo Alto, 1981, 506 pages.) A good reader. Essays on policing, urban crime, crime in history, organized crime, delinquency, and more. See also Tony Platt and Paul Takagi, editors, Punishment and Penal Discipline: Essays on the Prison and the Prisoners’ Movement (1980), a collection of essays taken from the radical criminology journal from San Francisco, Crime and Social Justice. For an anarchist take on crime, see L. Tifft and D. Sullivan, The Struggle to be Human: Crime, Criminology, and Anarchism (Cienfeugos Press, Orkney, U.K., 1980, 208 pages).

Gross, Bertram, Friendly Fascism: The New Face of Power in America. (M. Evans and Company, New York, 1980, 410 pages). Gross did not claim, in 1980, that friendly fascism existed already in the United States, but he described all the strong tendencies working in that direction, with chapters on fascist economics, the subversion of democracy, the management of information, the use of terror and covert action, the hidden establishment, and so forth. He ended by analyzing why it had not happened yet, and offered suggestions about what American citizens could do to prevent it from ever fully happening. Of course, this was before the Reagan counter-revolution, the rise of neo-liberalism, the emergence of the fundamentalist Christian Right as a major player in national politics, and the victory of the extremist right-wing of the Republican Party. But now, in the wake of September Eleven, we have disappearances, torture, secret military tribunals, shadow government, a gutted Bill of Rights, endless war, vastly expanded police powers, an Office of Homeland Security (funded at 40 billion), a partially aborted Freedom of Information Act, a concentration camp in Cuba, criminalization of dissent, billions more to the Pentagon, an end to the restriction of the CIA and the Armed Forces to foreign arenas (and thus their release for domestic operations), and much more. Has fascism arrived in the United States in 2002, and perhaps a not so friendly fascism at that? At least two commentators think so and say it outright (while many others hint at it, reluctant perhaps to use the F-word). John Stanton and Wayne Madsen write: "Historians will record that between November 2000 and February 2002, democracy – as envisioned by the creators of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution – effectively came to an end. As democracy died, the Fascist American Theocratic State was born." (, February 17, 2002) An exaggeration? We’ll know soon enough. A book by John T. Flynn, As We Go Marching, written 58 years ago (1944), sounded alarms similar to those of Gross, although in a less scholarly way. Described on the jacket as "A biting indictment of the coming of domestic fascism in America," the book has three parts: the Soil of Fascism: Italy; the Bad Fascism: Germany; the Good Fascism: America (Free Life Editions, New York, 1973, 272 pages). (See also other entries for Carsten [1967], Lee, Dobkowski.)

Guerin, Daniel, 100 Years of Labor in the USA. (Ink Links, London, 1979, 252 pages.) The story begins with the First Union Federation in 1866, and moves on to the Knights of Labor, the Great Uprising of 1877, Gompersism, Mother Jones, DeLeon, the IWW of 1905, the CIO, John Lewis, Walter Reuther, and so on, ending with a spate of strikes in the early seventies. An excellent short history of the American labor movement. See also, Daniel Fusfeld, The Rise and Repression of Radical Labor USA 1977-1918 (Kerr, 1980, 46 pages); Richard Boyer and Herbert Morais, Labor’s Untold Story (1955); Sidney Lens, The Labor Wars: From the Molly Maguires to the Sitdowns (1973); Anthony Bimba, The History of the American Working Class (1927); Mary Beard, A Short History of the American Labor Movement (1920); Leon Fink, Workingmen’s Democracy: The Knights of Labor and American Politics (1983); Ronald Schatz, The Electrical Workers: A History of Labor at General Electric and Westinghouse 1923-60; Jim Villani and Naton Leslie, editors, Labor and the Post-Industrial Age (Pig Iron, No. 16, 1990, Youngstown, Ohio, 128 pages); Trish Beatty et al, editors, Overtime: Punchin’ Out with The Mill Hunk Herald Magazine, 1979-1989 (West End Press, 1990); William Cahn, A Pictorial History of American Labor (Crown, 1972); M.B. Schnapper, American Labor: A Bicentennial History (Public Affairs Press, 1975, 574 pages, illustrated with hundreds of photos and graphics); Samuel Yellen, American Labor Struggles (1936). Yellen tells the stories of ten major labor struggles: railroad uprisings 1877, Haymarket 1886, Homestead 1892, Pullman 1894, coal miners 1902, Lawrence 1912, Ludlow 1913, steel 1919, southern textile workers 1929, west coast longshoremen 1934.

Guevara, Ernesto Che, Venceremos! The Speeches and Writings of Ernesto Che Guevara. (Macmillan, New York, 1968, 442 pages.) Edited by John Gerassi. The unorthodox radical theorist of the Cuban revolution. Wrote about strategy, guerrilla war, colonialism and anti-colonialism, imperialism, development and underdevelopment, ‘socialist man’, moral incentives, the Cuban economy, the Vietnam War.

Gutman, Herbert G., Power and Culture: Essays on the American Working Class (Pantheon, New York, 1987, 452 pages, with a long introductory essay by Ira Berlin.) A leading labor and social historian in America. Essays on coal miners, Paterson New Jersey, immigration, class composition, and so forth. See also his earlier collection of essays, Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America (1966).

Haffner, Sebastian, Failure of a Revolution: Germany 1918-1919 [1969]. (Banner Press, Chicago, 1986, 211 pages.) A history of the revolution that swept Germany after World War I, with the establishment of soldiers and workers councils across the country, and their ultimate defeat, a defeat engineered by the Social Democrats themselves, resulting in the murders of Karl Liebnecht, Rosa Luxemburg, Gustav Landauer, and many thousands more. A dismal, heart-rending story of missed opportunities, betrayal, and defeat, a defeat which paved the way for another century of capitalist expansion.

Hall, Peter, Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century. (Blackwell, 1988, 1996 updated edition, 544 pages.) This big book was written by an anarchist-friendly scholar who gives full credit to the pronounced role anarchists have played in this discipline for the past hundred years.

Harris, Marvin, America Now: The Anthropology of a Changing Culture. (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1981, 208 pages). An intriguing attempt, by America’s foremost radical anthropologist (a marxist, but not sectarian, who describes himself as a cultural materialist), to account for current trends in culture – such as cults, crime, incivility, shoddy goods, the shrinking dollar, women on the rampage, men kissing in the streets, collapsing infrastructure – by examining "changes in the way people conduct the practical and mundane affairs of their everyday lives," and in how they earn their livings: changes like the decline of factory jobs and rise of service jobs, the increase of women in the workforce, the replacement of small enterprises with huge monopolies, and so forth.

Harris, Marvin, Our Kind: Who We Are, Where We Came From, Where We Are Going. (Harper and Row, New York, 1989, 547 pages. Based on his vast knowledge of comparative anthopology, Harris describes for us in easy language the contribution anthropology makes to the understanding of human nature. The book consists of short chapters (1-4 pages each), on a host of topics (102), such as why war, coping with freeloaders, why we crave prestige, acquired tastes, innate tastes, was there life before chiefs, and much more.

Hauser, Arnold, The Social History of Art [1951]. (Vintage, New York, 1957, 4 volumes, 978 pages.) Volume One: Prehistoric Times, Ancient-Oriental Urban Cultures, Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages. Volume Two: Renaissance, Mannerism, Barque. Volume Three: Rococo, Classicism, Romanticism. Volume Four: Naturalism, Impressionism, the Film Age. "... explores historical and social movements and the effects these have had on the production of art – the centrality of class and class struggle, the cultural roles of ideologies and the determining influence of modes of economic development." (from the publisher). Illustrated with 144 photos.

Heller, Agnes, On Instincts. (Van Corcum, The Netherlands, 1979, 97 pages.) A thorough refutation, by a leading radical philosopher, of the claim, made by many sociobiologists, that humans have an instinct of aggression. A fine rebuttal of sociobiology. Among her many other books, especially interesting is The Theory of Need in Marx.

Henwood, Doug, Wall Street: How It Works and For Whom. (Verso, London, 1997, 372 pages.) A modern assessment by a contemporary radical economist. Seven Chapters: Instruments; Players; Ensemble; Market models; Renegades; Governance; What is (not) to be done? With appendices of charts and tables, plus a long bibliography. Henwood also publishes the Left Business Observer.

Herman, Edward S., The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. (South End Press, Boston, 1982, 252 pages.) A prescient book, considering the so-called ‘war on terrorism’ launched by the US government twenty years later. "A passionate and stinging indictment of the vast neworks of terror supported by Washington and of the apologists in the mass media..." (from the Jacket). See also Herman’s (with Gerry O’Sullivan), The Terrorism Industry: The Experts and Institutions that Shape Our View of Terror (1989); Eqbal Ahmad, Terrorism: Theirs and Ours (2001); and Noam Chomsky, The Culture of Terrorism (1988). (See also the entry for Mahajan below.)

Herman, Edward S., Triumph of the Market: Essays on Economics, Politics, and the Media. (South End Press, Boston, 1995, 276 pages.) One of the most incisive and lucid radical writers in America today. See also his large empirical study of 1981, Corporate Control, Corporate Power.

Herman, Edward S., and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. (Pantheon Books, New York, 1988, 412 pages.) The major radical critique of the mass media which serve as the propaganda arm of the private capital interests which control both the media and the government. Detailed examination of five case studies.

Hern, Matt, editor, Deschooling Our Lives. (New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, 1996, 150 pages.) A good introduction to the deschooling movement. Excerpts from Tolstoy, Illich, Bhave, Holt. Reports of current projects. Good bibliography and resource list. See also, Grace Llewellyn, the Teenage Liberation Handbook: How to Quit School and Get a Real Life and Education (Lowry House, Eugene, Oregon, 1992, 401 pages).

Herzen, Alexander, My Past and Thoughts: The Memoirs of Alexander Herzen. (Knopf, New York, 1973, 684 pages, preface by Dwight Macdonald, introduction by Isaiah Berlin, an abridged (by Macdonald) one volume version of the original four volumes). Herzen was the father of socialism/populism in Russian and of the revolutionary movement there. He moved to Western Europe in 1847, experiencing the turbulent years surrounding the revolutions of 1848 in Italy and France, and then settled in London in 1852 to agitate from there for revolution in Russia for the next eighteen years, until his death in 1870. He had worked for a while with Proudhon on La Voix du Peuple, was a friend of Bakunin, disliked and opposed Marx, believed that socialism in Russia could be based on the village commune (so it’s rather strange that anarchists have never claimed him). See also, the Meridian paperback edition (two-in-one) of his books From the Other Shore and The Russian People and Socialism (World Publishing, 1963, 216 pages); and Letters from France and Italy, 1847-1852 (1995). For studies, see Martin Malia, Alexander Herzen and the Birth of Russian Socialism, 1812-1855 (1961), and Judith Zimmerman, Alexander Herzen and European Revolution, 1847-1852 (1989).

Hill, Christopher, The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas during the English Revolution. (Penguin Books, London, 1975, 431 pages.) A survey of the tremendous outpouring of radical ideas during the English Revolution of the 1640s – levellers, diggers, seekers, ranters, Quakers, and more; Winstanley, Lilburne, Milton, Coppe, and so forth. Hill, an Englishman, is the greatest radical historian of the English Revolution. His book, The Century of Revolution 1603-1714 (Norton, 1966, 340 pages), is probably the best overall history of the period. But he wrote many other more specialized studies, including: Some Intellectual Consequences of the English Revolution (1980, 101 pages); The Experience of Defeat: Milton and Some Contemporaries (1984, 342 pages); Intellectual Origins of the English Revolution (1965, 334 pages); Puritanism and Revolution (1958, 402 pages); Antichrist in Seventeenth- Century England (1990, 205 pages).

Hilton, Rodney, editor/introducer, The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism. (Verso, London, 1976, 195 pages.) An anthology of the famous debate, sparked by the publication of Maurice Dobb’s Studies in the Development of Capitalism [1946], between Dobb, Sweezy, Hill, Hobsbawm, Lefebvre, and others. The debate was subsequently restarted by Robert Brenner. See The Brenner Debate: Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe, edited by T.H. Aston and C.H.E. Philpin (Cambridge, 1985, 339 pages), and continued most recently by Ellen Meiksins Wood, in The Origin of Capitalism (Monthly Review Press, 1999, 138 pages).

Hobsbawm, Eric, Echoes of the Marseillaise: Two Centuries Look Back on the French Revolution. (Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1990, 144 pages.) A fascinating study, from a broad Marxist perspective, of the historiography of the French Revolution. Can be usefully supplemented by Immanuel Wallerstein’s essay, in his Unthinking Social Science, "The French Revolution as a World-Historical Event" (pp. 7-22). See also, George C. Comninel, Rethinking the French Revolution: Marxism and the Revisionist Challenge (Verso, London, 1987, 225 pages). For some standard texts, see George Rude, The French Revolution (1988); George Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution (1939); Alfred Cobban, The Social Interpretation of the French Revolution; and Norman Hampson, A Social History of the French Revolution. A delightful blow by blow account for the general public (but written by a liberal), with tons of illustrations, is by David Dowd, The French Revolution (Horizon Caravel Book, 1965); or, in the same vein, see Norman Hampson, The First European Revolution 1776-1815 (Harcourt Brace, 1969, 214 pages, with 103 illustrations). (See also the entry for Soboul.)

Hobsbawm, Eric, Bandits (Delacorte Press, 1969, 127 pages), Primitive Rebels (Norton, 1959, 202 pages), and Captain Swing (with George Rude) (Pantheon, 1968, 384 pages). Three of the most interesting books by Britain’s foremost marxist historian. But see also his essays collected in Revolutionaries (1973), and Workers (1984). The essays collected in Politics for a Rational Left (Verso, London, 1989, 250 pages), covering the years 1977-1988, attempt to reassess the labor movement and the whole radical project, with a special focus of course on labor in Britain, in such essays as "Socialism and Nationalism," "The Emancipation of Mankind," and "Offering a Good Society." A stimulating book.

Hoch, Paul, Rip Off The Big Game: The Exploitation of Sports by the Power Elite. (Anchor Doubleday, New York, 1972, 222 pages.) An attack on the commodification of sports under monopoly capitalism. Shows how the contemporary sports establishment reflects the values of such a system – "a class society that thrives on elitism, nationalism, racism, and sexism. .... Organized football, for example, is violent and psychopathically competitive, with a strong emphasis on militarized authority and group loyalty" (from the jacket). Gives references to the few critical studies of sports existing at the time (1972). Since then, what?

Hoffman, Abbie, Revolution for the Hell of It. (Dial Press, New York, 1968, 231 pages.) Hoffman (1936-1989) was one of the most vibrant, creative, charismatic, irrepressible revolutionaries in American history. A founder of the Yippie! movement in 1968. He was an unrepentant rebel and never wavered from the radical path he had chosen, even managing to do remarkable agitation while living on the lam. A genius with the media. He also wrote Woodstock Nation (1969); Steal This Book (1971); Soon to be a Major Motion Picture (1980), an autobiography of sorts, recently reprinted; Square Dancing in the Ice Age (1982); and Steal This Urine Test (1987). There is a reader now, The Best of Abbie Hoffman (1990, 440 pages), which includes selections from Revolution for the Hell of It, Woodstock Nation, and Steal This Book, plus nine essays from the 1980s. There are several studies: Marty Jezer, Abbie Hoffman: American Rebel (1992); Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of It: The Life and Times of Abbie Hoffman (1998); Jack Hoffman, Run, Run, Run!: The Lives of Abbie Hoffman (1994), written by his brother; and Theodore Lewis Becker, Live This Book: Abbie Hoffman’s Philosophy for a Free and Green America (1991).

Holloway, Mark, Heavens on Earth: Utopian Communities in America 1680-1880 [1951]. (Dover, New York, 1966, revised edition, 246 pages.) This is a good, standard history. Covers the historical background in Europe, the early immigrants and their experiments (Bohemia Manor, Ephrata), the Shakers, Rappites and Zoarites, Owenites, Josiah Warren, Fourism, Oneida, Icaria. For the twentieth century, see Laurence Veysey, The Communal Experience: Anarchist and Mystical Communities in Twentieth-Century America (University of Chicago, 1978, 495 pages). An earlier classic is by Charles Nordhoff, The Communistic Societies of the United States (1875). Another excellent older history of communes in America is by V.F. Calverton, Where Angels Fear to Tread (1941, 381 pages). This book contains a chapter on the anarchistic communal experiment of Josiah Warren, Modern Times. A shorter, more popularly written, survey is by Daniel Cohen, Not of the World: A History of the Commune in America (1969), illustrated with 45 photographs. A more recent scholarly work, based on archival and original materials, is by Robert S. Fogarty, All Things New: American Communes and Utopian Movements 1860-1914 (Chicago University Press, 1990, 286 pages, with a thirteen page bibliographical essay on sources). In a similar vein is Edward K. Spann, Brotherly Tomorrows: Movements for a Cooperative Society in America 1820-1920 (Columbia University Press, 1989, 354 pages, with a good bibliography). See also, Keith Melville, Communes in the Counter Culture [of the ‘60s]: Origins, Theories, Styles of Life (1972). Also interesting is Paul Kagan, New World Utopias: A Photographic History of the Search for Community (Penguin, 1975, 191 pages). There are of course many studies of individual communes. See for example, Spencer Klaw, The Life and Death of the Aneida Community (1993); E.G. Alderfer, The Ephrata Commune: An Early American Counterculture (1985); Henry W. Sams, editor, Autobiography of Brook Farm (1958); John W. Bennett, Hutterian Brethren: The Agricultural Economy and Social Organization of a Communal People (1967); Martin Duberman, Black Mountain: An Exploration in Community (1972), a study of Black Mountain College 1933-1956, in North Carolina; Robert Hine, California’s Utopian Colonies (1953); and Charles Pierce LeWarne, Utopias on Puget Sound 1885-1915 (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1975, 325 pages). And for elsewhere, Nigel Todd, Roses and Revolutionists: The Story of the Clousden Hill Free Communist and Co-Operative Colony 1894-1902 (People’s Publications, London, 1986, 61 pages); Melford E. Spiro, Kibbutz: Venture in Utopia (1956). (See also the entries above for Buber, Bernieri, Boyle, Fisher.)

Hook, Sidney, From Hegel to Marx: Studies in the Intellectual Development of Karl Marx [1936]. (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1962, 335 pages.) A major text in rediscovering Marx, and separating him from the orthodox Marxism of Engels and the Second International. Written in the ‘30s before Hook became a liberal. A study of Marx’s relation to Hegel and the Young Hegelians (a school of thought to which Marx originally belonged) – Strauss, Bauer, Ruge, Stirner, Hess, Feuerbach.

Hooks, Bell, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. (South End Press, Boston, 1984, 174 pages.) This was an unusual feminist book for the time I think because it included a chapter on work and a chapter on men as comrades in struggle. Other chapters discussed power, ending violence, parenting, ending female sexual oppression, feminist theory, sisterhood, revolution. A major theorist and activist, and a prolific writer, with more than twenty books so far, including: Ain’t I A Woman (1981); Talking Back (1989); Yearning (1990); Black Looks (1992); Sisters of the Yam (1993); Outlaw Culture (1994); Art on My Mind (1995); Killing Rage (1996); Reel to Real (1996); Born Black (1997); Remembering Rapture (1999); Where We Stand (2000); Communion (2000); Salvation (2001).

Horkheimer, Max, Dawn & Decline: Notes 1926-1931 and 1950-1969. (Seabury Press, New York, 1978, 252 pages.) My favorite theorist from the Frankfurt School. These highly accessible notes touch on just about everything, giving a good overview of the range of Horkheimer’s thought. Major collections of his writings are Critical Theory (Herder and Herder, 1972), and Between Philosophy and Social Science: Selected Early Writings (MIT, 1993). See also, from Seabury Press, Critique of Instrumental Reason, and Eclipse of Reason. There is a collection of critical assessments: On Max Horkheimer (MIT, 1993, 432 pages), edited by Seyla Benhabib, Wolfgang BonB, John McCole.

Howe, Irving, Selected Writings 1950-1990. (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1990, 490 pages.) America’s foremost social democrat. Founded Dissent magazine and edited it for decades. A genuine public intellectual. Wrote a lot of literary criticism too. See his intellectual autobiography, A Margin of Hope. An earlier collection of essays, overlapping some with this one, is Steady Work: Essays in the Politics of Democratic Radicalism 1953-1966. See also his Socialism and America (1977, 1985).

Jacobs, Ron, The Way the Wind Blew: A History of the Weather Underground. (Verso, London, 1997, 216 pages; has a useful bibliography, a chronology of events, and nineteen brief biographical sketches in a cast of characters.) This is the first overall history of the Weather Underground (I think). It focuses on their politics, as well as their history and personalities. The weather underground originated from a split in the Students for a Democratic Society at their June 1969 convention. The split probably began though during the events of 1968, and especially from the police riot against demonstrators at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. A group of SDS’ers concluded that normal protest no longer worked and decided to go underground and take up guerrilla warfare against the American Empire, from inside ‘the belly of the beast’, taking their name from a line in Bob Dylan’s song, ‘Subterranean Homesick Blues’ – "You Don’t Need a Weatherman to Know Which Way the Wind Blows". Over the next several years they undertook a series of bombings and other actions, and also issued a series of ‘communiques’ to the above ground movement. Their eventual political philosophy was articulated in Prairie Fire: The Politics of Revolutionary Anti-Imperialism (1974). See also: Harold Jacobs, editor, Weatherman (Ramparts Press, 1970, 419 pages), compiled from primary documents and critical essays; Susan Stern, With the Weathermen: The Personal Journal of a Revolutionary Woman (1975); and Jane Alpert, Growing Up Underground (1981).

Jacoby, Russell, Dialiectic of Defeat: Contours of Western Marxism. (Cambridge University Press, London, 1981, 202 pages.) This is the story of the unknown marxism, the subterranean, anti-bolshevik, hegelian marxism of Western Europe. A book far superior, to my mind, to Perry Anderson’s Considerations on Western Marxism, which is marred by its Trotskyist undertones and its neglect or omission of key figures, reflecting Anderson’s lack of sympathy for the tradition. Jacoby discusses for example the unknown and untranslated Rodolfo Mondolfo, as well as Amadeo Bordiga, and others. See also Dick Howard and Karl Klare, eds., The Unknown Dimension: European Marxism Since Lenin (Basic Books, 1972, 418 pages). This collection has essays on Georg Lukacs, Ernst Bloch, Karl Korsch, Antonio Gramsci, Anton Pannekoek, Wilhelm Reich, Theodore Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, Herbert Marcuse, Jurgen Habermas, Jean-Paul Sartre, Henri Lefebvre, Galvano Della Volpe, Serge Mallet, Andre Gorz, and Louis Althusser (the odd man out here).

Jahoda, Gloria, The Trail of Tears: The Story of the American Indian Removals 1813-1855 [1975]. (Wings Books, New York, 1995, 356 pages.) "The bitter tale of the sad events that led inexorably to the final massacre at Wounded Knee began with the Trail of Tears. In 1830, the U.S. Congress passed a bill permitting the removal of all Native Americans living east of the Mississippi. Over the next twenty years more than fifty tribes were uprooted from their homelands and marched into the alien lands of the west – the first step in the destruction of an entire people." (jacket) (See also entries for Dee Brown, Roger Owen, Paul Smith, and Matthiessen.)

James, C.L.R., Facing Reality [1958]. With Grace C. Lee and Pierre Chaulieu. (Bewick Editions, Detroit, 1974, 174 pages.) A recasting of radical social philosophy in light of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and the workers councils created there, by activists in the process of breaking with Trotskyism, Leninism, and orthodox marxism. A famous text of the so-called Johnson-Forrest tendency, and of autonomous marxism. For an introduction to James, see C.L.R. James: His Life and Work (a special issue of Urgent Tasks, No. 12, summer 1981, published by Sojourner Truth Organization, Chicago, 128 pages). There is a CLR James Reader now, edited by Anna Grimshaw (Blackwell, 1992, 451 pages). James’ essays were collected in three volumes by Allison & Busby. He wrote books on cricket, Beyond a Boundary (1963); the Haitian revolution, Black Jacobins (1938); on Melville, Mariners, Renegades, and Castaways (1953); on Russia as state capitalism, State Capitalism and World Revolution (1950); a history of the communist revolution and the Third International, World Revolution 1917-1936: The Rise and Fall of the Communist International (1937); as well as: A History of Pan-African Revolt (1938, 1969); Notes on Dialectics (1948); Nkruman and the Ghana Revolution (1977); Modern Politics (1960); and American Civilization (1993). Studies are: Paul Buhle, C.L.R. James: The Artist as Revolutionary, and Anthony Bogues, Caliban’s Freedom: The Early Political Thought of C.L.R. James.

James, C.L.R., The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution [1938]. (Allison & Busby, London, 1994, 426 pages.) A classic account of the only successful slave revolt in history, the revolution in Haiti from 1791-1803. For contemporary Haiti, see Paul Farmer, The Uses of Haiti, James Ridgeway, The Haiti Files, and NACLA, Haiti: Dangerous Crossroads.

Jay, Martin, Adorno. (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984, 199 pages.) A user friendly introduction to a very difficult thinker. A reasonably absorbable set of essays by Adorno is in Prisms (Neville Spearman, London, 1967, 272 pages). The big book is Negative Dialectics [1966] (Seabury Press, New York, 1979, 416 pages). Others are Minima Moralia; Against Epistemology; Hegel: Three Studies; In Search of Wagner; and The Jargon of Authenticity. Adorno was a member of the Frankfurt School.

Jonas, Hans, The Phenomenon of Life: Towards a Philosophical Biology [1966]. (Phoenix, Chicago, 1982, 303 pages.) A brilliant, mind-blowing escape from the dualities of orthodox thought. Overcomes the inside/outside dichotomy. Avoids reductionism. Demolishes the objectivism and positivism of orthodox science. Essays on sight, metabolism, cybernetics, Descartes, Darwinism, Heidegger, immortality, the body, Gnosticism. See also, in the same vein, Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin, The Dialectical Biologist (Harvard University Press, 1985, 303 pages), and John MacMurray, The Self as Agent [1957] (Humanities Press, 1991, 230 pages).

Jones, Mary Harris, Mother Jones Speaks: Speeches and Writings of a Working-Class Fighter. (Pathfinder Press, New York, 1983, 724 pages, with an introduction and bibliography.) A massive compilation, covering more than three decades, 1897-1930, of the works of a great American labor leader. Includes speeches, articles, interviews, letters, and testimony before Congress. See also The Autobiography of Mother Jones (Charles Kerr, Chicago, 1996, 302 pages).

Kaplan, Jerry, Anarchist Archives Project: Items Cataloged through December 31, 1994: Periodicals, Books, Pamphlets, Miscellaneous. (Anarchist Archives Project, P.O. Box 381323, Cambridge, MA 02238-1323, USA, 1995, 111 pages.) There is probably a later edition of this catalog. Kaplan’s is the largest private collecting project of anarchist materials going on at present in the United States. I think I recall him saying in 1996 that he had 13,000 items so far. Browsing through the list is actually not a bad way of acquainting yourself with anarchist literature (authors and titles that is). There are two great public collections of anarchist material: The International Institute for Social History, in Amsterdam, and the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. There is also the more newly established Kate Sharpley Library devoted to anarchist materials, originally in Great Britain, now located in San Francisco. On the internet there is the Spunk Archive; The Anarchist Archive; and The Anarchist Library, plus much more. The Tamiment Library, now at New York City University, is more focused on labor history and socialist and communist literature.

Kapp, K. William, The Social Costs of Private Enterprise [1950]. (Schocken Books, New York, 1971, 287 pages.) It has been said that the only thing private about private enterprise is the profit. For the rest, the original research and development is often at taxpayer expense, as are the external costs that have been fobbed off on the public. Nor must we forget all the bailouts. Kapp focuses especially on the environmental costs of unregulated competition. He is not anti-capitalist, but aims only for public assessment and regulation. He wants to reform the science of economics, which ignores social costs, and to establish a ‘new science of political economy’. Nevertheless, this is a useful book, which can fill the gap until an author covers the same ground who realizes that it is capitalism itself that is awry, and not merely unregulated capitalism.

Kasmir, Sharryn, The Myth of Mondragon: Cooperatives, Politics, and Working-Class Life in a Basque Town. (State University of New York Press, Albany, 1996, 243 pages.) "The author argues that the vast scholarly and popular literature on Mondragon idealizes the cooperatives by falsely portraying them as apolitical institutions and by ignoring the experiences of shop floor workers. She shows how this creation of an idealized image of the cooperatives is part of a new global ideology that promotes cooperative labor-management relations in order to discredit labor unions and working-class organizations." (from the jacket). See also, for a more regular study of the cooperatives, William Foote White and Kathleen King White, Making Mondragon: The Growth and Dynamics of the Worker Cooperative Complex (ILR Press, Cornell, Ithaca, New York, 1991, second edition).

Kautsky, Karl, Communism in Central Europe in the Time of the Reformation [1897]. (Russell & Russell, New York, 1959, 293 pages.) Covers the Taborites, the Anabaptists, Bohemia. Contains a discussion of Thomas Munzer in the peasant war of 1525 (pp. 90-154).

Kautsky, Karl, The Labour Revolution. (Dial Press, New York, 1924, 287 pages.) Perhaps the best, most comprehensive, statement of the politics (and orthodox Marxism) of the Second International. For a study, see Massimo Salvadori, Karl Kautsky and the Socialist Revolution 1880-1938.

Keller, Helen, Helen Keller: Her Socialist Years: Writings and Speeches. (International Publishers, New York, 1967, 128 pages, edited and introduced by Philip S. Foner). Another famous American whose socialism has been purged from history. This collection covers the years 1912-1929, and addresses such topics as the unemployed, Joe Hill, birth control, war, Wobblies, Debs, Soviet Russia, and so forth.

Kerouac, Jack, On the Road. (Viking Press, New York, 1957, 310 pages). The most famous book of the most famous member of the Beat Generation movement in the late 1950s. See also, The Subterraneans (1958); Visions of Cody (1959); Book of Dreams (1960); Big Sur (1962). For a study, see Ann Charters, Kerouac: A Biography (Straight Arrow Books, 1973, 419 pages).

Knabb, Ken, editor, Situationist International Anthology. (Bureau of Public Secrets, Berkeley, 1981, 406 pages.) A documentary history and key texts of the Situationist International, which existed from 1957 until 1972, an avant-guarde European radical tendency which helped lay the ground work for May 1968 in France. Aside from Debord, mentioned above, another founding text of situationism is by Raoul Vaneigem, Revolution in Everyday Life [1963-65] (Left Bank Books, Seattle, 1983, 216 pages). His other book in English is Book of Pleasures (Pending Press, London, 1983, 105 pages). See also, Rene Vienet, Enrages and Situationists in the Occupation Movement, France, May ’68 (Autonomedia, Brooklyn, 1992, 158 pages), and Debord and Sanguinetti, The Veritable Split in the International. A bibliography on the movement has been published by Ford Simon, The Realization and Suppression of the Situationist International: An Annotated Bibliography 1972-1992 (AK Press).

Kolko, Gabriel, Wealth and Power In America: An Analysis of Social Class and Income Distribution. (Praeger, New York, 1962, 178 pages.) An early sixties classic dispelling the myth that America is one big happy middle class. Great empirical study of income, wealth, concentration of corporate power, taxation, poverty. Naturally, it needs to be supplemented (updated) with more recent studies, like Andrew Hacker, Money: Who Has How Much and Why (Scribner, 1997); Chuck Collins, Betsy Wright, Holly Sklar, Shifting Fortunes: The Perils of the Growing American Wealth Gap (1999); or Edward Wolff, Top Heavy: The Increasing Inequality of Wealth in America ... (New Press, 1995, 110 pages). See also, Ferdinand Lundberg, The Rich and The Super-Rich (Lyle Stuart, New York, 1968, 812 pages), and Gustavus Myers, History of the Great American Fortunes [1907] (Modern Library, New York, 1936, 732 pages).

Kollontai, Alexandra, The Workers Opposition [1921]. Written by a member of the Bolshevik Central Committee in support of the Workers Opposition’s Theses on the Trade Union Question, which was to be discussed at the 10th Congress of the Communit Party of the Soviet Union (1921). "An incisive critique of the developing bureaucracy" (Thelma Anarres, from the introduction to the 1979 edition by Solidarity, North London, 35 pages). Contains extensive endnotes exploring the strengths and weaknesses of Kollontai’s analysis. For more Kollontai, see her Selected Writings (Allison & Busby, 1977, 335 pages). Her other works include: Love of Worker Bees (a novel), and Autobiography of a Sexually Emancipated Woman. A biography is Barbara Evans Clements, Bolshevik Feminist: The Life of Aleksandra Kollontai.

Koning, Hans, Columbus: His Enterprise. Exploding the Myth. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1976, 140 pages.) A truly explosive book. Based on Columbus’ actual journals and other contemporary records. Documents Columbus’ barbaric assault on native americans – chopping off their limbs, burning them alive, and enslaving them. Exploses Columbus’ greedy and brutal character. You will never again think of ‘the discovery of America’ in an innocent way. In 1992 there happened a counter-quincentennial of Columbus’ arrival in the Americas, accompanied by a huge outpouring of radical material, mostly as special issues of various journals. See for example: Rethinking Columbus (special issue of Rethinking Schools, September 1991); Columbus: Liar, Slaver, Murderer, Thief (special issue of Radical Teacher , fall 1993); Columbus and the New World Order 1492-1992 (special issue of Monthly Review, July-August 1992); Hidden History: Columbus and the Colonial Legacy (special issue of The New Internationalist, December 1991); The First Nations 1492-1992 (special issue of Report on the Americas, December 1991); Exposing Columbus: Taking the Glory out of Racism and Genocide (special issue of Forward Motion, January-February 1993); The Impact of US Policy on Indigenous Peoples (special issue of Covert Action, Spring 1992); Columbus on Trial (special issue of Social Justice, Summer 1992); The Curse of Columbus (special issue of Race and Class, January-March 1992); View from the Shore: American Indian Perspectives on the Quincentenary (special issue of Northeast Indian Quarterly, fall 1990). See also, 1492-1992: Commemorating 500 Years of Indigenous Resistance: A Community Reader (September, 1992, 154 pages, letter-size; available from the Resource Center for Nonviolence, 515 Broadway, Santa Cruz, California 95060).

Koning, Hans, Nineteen Sixty-Eight: A Personal Report. (Norton, New York, 1987, 194 pages.) To my mind, this is one of the finest of the personal memoirs of 1968. Koning was in all the right places at all the right times, and it seems that he knew just about everyone. Best of all, writing twenty years later, he is still a revolutionary, like tens of thousands, perhaps even most, New Left radicals still are. It is the dozen or so turncoats though who have captured all the media attention, naturally. The vilest of these by far is David Horowitz, the author of several good books in the sixties and an editor of the now extinct Ramparts magazine, only to later transmogrify into one of the most rabid right-wingers in American history. But he has company, even if they can’t quite match his despicable class act (class traitor, that is). Jerry Rubin joined Wall Street; Rennie Davis was Born Again; Todd Gitlin never escaped Liberalism; Tom Hayden joined the Democratic Party and ran for office. And so it went.

Kornbluh, Joyce L., editor, Rebel Voices: An IWW Anthology [1964]. (Charles Kerr Publishing, Chicago, 1988, 447 pages.) Magnificent documentary history, with lots of graphics, of the Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies). A comprehensive, annotated bibliography on the Wobblies, by Steve Kellerman, was recently published in the Anarcho-Syndicalist Review, No. 27, Winter, 1999. See also, Stewart Bird, Dan Georgakas, and Deborah Shaffer, editors, Solidarity Forever: An Oral History of the IWW (Lake View Press, Chicago, 247 pages); Fred Thompson and Patrick Murfin, The IWW: Its First 70 Years (1975); Patrick Renshaw, The Wobblies: The Story of Syndicalism in the United States (1967); and especially Paul Brissenden, The IWW: A Study of American Syndicalism (1919, 438 pages).

Korsch, Karl, Marxism and Philosophy [1923, 1930]. (New Left Books, London, 1970, 159 pages.) A brilliant philosophical rejection of both Leninism and Social Democracy by a left German communist, council communist, and anarcho-syndicalist. Korsch helped bring Hegel back into Marxism in the twenties, and helped lay the foundation for a third road, an anti-statist road, that is, an anarchist road, to communism. For more Korsch, see Karl Korsch: Revolutionary Theory (Texas University Press, 1974, 299 pages, edited by Douglas Kellner). Kellner provides a 110-page introduction to this book, "Korsch’s Revolutionary Marxism," as well as lengthy introductions to the six chapters of selected texts (23 items). Korsch’s study of workers councils has never been translated (Arbeitsrecht fur Betriebsrate), nor has his critique of Kautsky, both of which should be. Two other books in English though are Three Essays on Marxism, (Monthly Review Press, 1971, 71 pages), and Karl Marx [1938] (Russell and Russell, 1963, 247 pages). A biography is by Patrick Goode, Karl Korsch: A Study in Western Marxism.

Krimerman, Len, and Frank Lindenfeld, editors, When Workers Decide: Worplace Democracy Takes Root in North America. (New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, 1992, 308 pages.) An extensive anthology of accounts of contemporary experiments with workers control. Has a lengthy bibliography of recent works, "References and Bibliography on Workers’ Participation, Worker Ownership, and Workplace Democracy, 1979-1991". Includes an extensive list of resources. Krimerman and Lindenfeld are currently editors of The Grassroots Economic Organizing Newsletter. The GEO collective has recently published a directory: An Economy of Hope: Annotated National Directory of Worker Co-Ops, Democratic ESOPs, Sustainable Enterprises, Support Organizations and Resources.

Kropotkin, Peter, Revolutionary Pamphlets [1927]. (Benjamin Blom, New York, 1968, 307 pages.) A good way into Kropotkin. Includes a short biography and a bibliography. Articles on prisons, morality, science, law, the Russian Revolution. Includes Kropotkin’s famous article on anarchism written for the 1910 edition of Encyclopedia Britannica. There is also a later selection of his essays, edited by Martin Miller, Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution (MIT Press, 1970, 374 pages), which contains the long essay, "Must we occupy ourselves with an examination of the ideal of a future system?" (pages 46-117), as well as his famous essay on the state (pages 210-265). All his books are currently being republished by Black Rose Press in Montreal, Canada, including Mutual Aid; The Conquest of Bread; Memoirs of a Revolutionist; Ethics; The French Revolution; Fields, Factories and Workshops; etcetera. For biographies, see Martin Miller, Kropotkin, and George Woodcock, The Anarchist Prince.

Kropotkin, Peter, Fields, Factories and Workshops, or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work [1898] (Greenwood Press, New York, 1968, 259 pages); Mutual Aid [1902] (Porter Sargant, Boston, no date, 362 pages); and The Conquest of Bread [1913] (Benjamin Blom, New York, 1968, 298 pages). These are the three books in which Kropotkin works out most clearly and concretely his conception of decent, free, human social life. But these are not abstract models. Rather they are detailed, historical, empirical studies, infused throughout though with an anarchist theoretical vision. They present a picture of human life so at odds with contemporary realities and the dominant culture as to practically stun the reader. Fields and Factories is basically an attack on industry and agriculture organized for profit. Kropotkin instead studies decentralized industry, and agriculture for self-sufficiency not export, with an integrated education to match. Mutual Aid is a study of the role of cooperation in the evolution of human life. Kropotkin begins by surveying mutual aid among animals, and then among archaic human groups. Two chapters are then devoted to the medieval city, and finally he discusses the relevance of all this for modern times. The Conquest of Bread is a sort of summary and condensation of Kropotkin’s overall social philosophy. It has seventeen chapters as follows: Our Riches; Well-Being for All; Anarchist Communism; Expropriation; Food; Dwellings; Clothing; Ways and Means; The Need for Luxury; Agreeable Work; Free Agreement; Objections; the Collectivist Wages System; Consumption and Production; the Division of Labor; the Decentralization of Industry; Agriculture. These books are must-reads for anyone seeking to bring into being a liveable world.

Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. (Chicago University Press, 1962 1st edition, 1970 edition with postscript added, 210 pages.) A pathbreaking book that initiated a huge debate about the nature of science, and forever changed our understanding of this endeavor. See also Kuhn’s The Road Since Structure: Philosophical Essays 1970-1993, with an Autobiographical Interview (University of Chicago Press, 2000, 335 pages). This posthumous book collects Kuhn’s various replies to his critics, several essays which further refine his basic ideas about scientific revolutions, paradigm shifts, incommensurability, and the nature of scientific progress, plus a long interview given in 1995, a year before his death.

Kuron, Jacek, and Karol Modzelewski, Open Letter to Members of the University of Warsaw Sections of the Polish United Workers Party and the Union of Young Socialists [1965]. A famous sixties analysis of ‘actually existing socialism’ in Poland, and a revolutionary program for transforming it. English translation in New Politics, Vol. 5, 1966, no. 2 pp 6-46, no. 3, pp 72-99. Finally published as a book by Bookmarks, London, 1982, 88 pages.

Labriola, Antonio, Socialism and Philosophy [1897-99]. (Telos Press, St. Louis, 1980, 223 pages.) A founder of the unique Italian, Hegelian, brand of Marxism. Important also for understanding Gramsci.

Lafargue, Paul, Right to Be Lazy [1883]. (Charles H. Kerr, Chicago, 1989, 128 pages.) A pioneering work, by Marx’s flamboyant cuban-born son-in-law, on the liberation from work. See also the more recent anthology on work published by Freedom Press (1983, 210 pages), Why Work?, which has essays by Russell, Morris, Kropotkin, Woodcock, Ward, Bernieri, Leval, and others. There was a short-lived journal in the mid-70s, Zerowork, out of New York City. (See also the entry above for Gorz, 1985.)

Landau, Elaine, The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Maxwell Macmillan, Toronto, 1992, 143 pages). This is a junior level history, illustrated with photographs. For fuller histories, see Dan Kurzman, The Bravest Battle: The Twenty-Eight Days of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising [April-May, 1943] (Da Capo Press, 1993, 400 pages); Israel and Asrael Gutman, Resistance: the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1998, 277 pages, with an annotated bibliography); and Reuben Ainsztein, The Warsaw Ghetto Revolt (1979, 238 pages).

Landauer, Gustav, For Socialism [1911]. (Telos Press, St. Louis, 1978, 150 pages.) "Continuing the thoughts he first advanced in his Skepsis und Mystik and Die Revolution, he effectively criticizes the central social forces of modern European society – the Second International, advanced capitalism, modern science, the Social-Democratic Party, orthodox Marxism, and the economistic vision of state socialism – while, at the same time, outlining an emancipatory, stateless, political order grounded in the traditions of organic community." (From the introduction to the Telos edition.) Landauer was murdered – bludgeoned, trampled, and shot in the head – by Noske’s White troops in Munich in May, 1919. A good biography is by Eugene Lunn, Prophet of Community: The Romantic Socialism of Gustav Landauer.

Laslett, Peter, The World We Have Lost. (Scribner’s, New York, 1965,1971, 325 pages, second edition.) A study of society in England in the seventeenth century before the coming of industrialization. An example of a new type of historical writing, social history, based on empirical historical democraphics. Descriptions of the class structure (nobility, gentry, townsmen, peasants), the village community, patriarchy, parents and children, marriages, births and deaths, famines, social mobility and elite rule, literacy, and so forth.

Lassalle, Ferdinand, The Working Men’s Programme [1862]. (The Modern Press, London, 1884, 59 pages.) Lassalle (1825-1864) was the founder of the first workers party in Germany. For studies, see Edward Bernstein, Ferdinand Lassalle as a Social Reformer (translated by Eleanor Aveling); W.H. Dawson, German Socialism and Ferdinand Lassalle; and David Footman, The Primrose Path: A Life of Ferdinand Lassalle.

Leamer, Laurence, The Paper Revolutionaries: The Rise of the Underground Press. (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1972, 220 pages.) Begins with a brief look back at some precursors, like the Masses and the Appeal to Reason before World War One, and the Realist and the Village Voice which were begun in the ‘50s. Leamer then tells the story of the underground press of the movement years in sixties and seventies, beginning with the Los Angeles Free Press, the first, begun in 1964. Lots of graphics, including front pages of numerous papers. An appendix lists 118 papers in the United States that were members of the Underground Press Syndicate, including Akwesasne Notes (Rooseveltown, New York); Amazing Grace (Tallahassee, Florida); Berkeley Barb (Berkeley, California); Chinook (Denver, Colorado); East Village Other (New York City); Fifth Estate (Detroit, Michigan); Great Speckled Bird (Atlanta, Georgia); Kaleidoscope (Milwaukee, Wisconsin); Liberated Guardian (New York City); Nola Express (New Orleans, Louisiana); Outlaw (St. Louis, Missouri); Quicksilver Times (Washington, D.C.); Rat (New York City); Rag (Austin, Texas); Rising Up Angry (Chicago, Illinois); and Seed (Chicago, Illinois). This book was written of course before the whole phenomenon vanished.

Least Heat Moon, William, Blue Highways: A Journey Into America. (Little Brown, Boston, 1982, 488 pages.) A liberal book. No matter. Settle back for a great read, traveling the back roads into the vanishing world of small town America. Without your ever having really noticed it, the author serves up a resounding condemnation of the world that is taking its place, although he doesn’t have a clue about what’s causing this, given his liberal framework.

LeBlanc, Paul, A Short History of the U.S. Working Class: From Colonial Times to the Twenty-first Century. (Humanity Books, Prometheus, Amherst, Massachusetts, 1999, 205 pages.) Has a useful glossary, a labor history chronology, as well as bibliographical essays which cover not only books and periodicals but also fiction, art, poetry, photography, films, and web sites. For a much earlier, but more detailed history up to the 1920s, see Anthony Bimba, The History of the American Working Class (International Publishers, 1927, 385 pages). A massive contemporary empirical study is by Albert Szymanski, Class Struggle: A Critical Perspective (Praeger, 1983, 674 pages).

Lee, Martin, The Beast Reawakens. (Little Brown, Boston, 1997, 546 pages.) "A comprehensive, chilling history of the neo-Nazi movement, from its beginnings in post-war Germany to its influence throughout Europe and America today." (from the jacket) (See also entries for Carsten (1967), Gross, Dobkowski.)

LeGuin, Ursula, The Dispossessed, An Ambiguous Utopia [1974]. (Many editions, e.g., Easton Press, Norwalk, Connecticut, 1986, 341 pages.) A brilliant and exciting radical sci-fi novel, as well as a fascinating attempt to picture in concrete detail how an anarchist society might function on a daily level. LeGuin has written many other fascinating novels, but none as relevant to revolution as this one. I did enjoy very much though The Left Hand of Darkness; The Lathe of Heaven; the Earth-Sea novels; and the three Hainish novels. See also her collected essays on fantasy and science fiction, The Language of the Night (1979). A secondary study is by Barbara Bucknall, Ursula K. LeGuin (1981).

Lens, Sidney, Radicalism in America. (Thomas Crowell, New York, 1966, 372 pages.) This is a really good history of radicalism in the United States by an independent scholarly radical intellectual and activist. It begins with colonial rebels and takes the story through the 1930s, with a concluding chapter on the next quarter century up to the mid-60s. Lens is relatively blind though to anarchists, which is typical for radicals, even independent ones, coming out of the marxist left. Haymarket gets three pages, with Goldman and Berkman mentioned three or four times in passing. Well worth reading though. Lens was a radical activist through five decades, from the 1930s through the 1970s. He wrote eighteen books, among which are The Crisis of American Labor (1959); Poverty : America’s Enduring Paradox: A History of the Richest Nation’s Unwon War (1969); The Military Industrial Complex (1970); The Forging of the American Empire (1971); The Labor Wars: From the Molly Maguires to the Sitdowns (1973); The Promise and Pitfalls of Revolution (1974); The Day Before Doomsday: An Anatomy of the Nuclear Arms Race (1978); and his autobiography, Unrepentant Radical: An American Activist’s Account of Five Turbulent Decades (1980).

Lens, Sidney, The Forging of the American Empire. (Crowell, New York, 1971, 462 pages.) A comprehensive history of U.S. imperialism, with chapters such as ‘Picking the Spanish Bone’, ‘Mexico for Americans’, and ‘Subduing the Banana Republics’. During the course of the text, the author covers 160 major and minor wars of expansion and intervention waged by the United States from 1790 onwards through the war in Vietnam. A major study. See also, William Appleman Williams, The Roots of the Modern American Empire: A Study of the Growth and Shaping of Social Consciousness in a Marketplace Society (Random House, New York, 1969, 546 pages); and Gabriel Kolko, The Roots of American Foreign Policy (Beacon Press, Boston, 1969, 166 pages). For the contemporary military side of Empire, see Joseph Gerson and Bruce Birchard, editors, The Sun Never Sets ... Confronting the Network of Foreign U.S. Military Bases (South End Press, Boston, 1991, 389 pages). (See also the entry for Blum.)

Levin, Nora, While Messiah Tarried: Jewish Socialist Movements 1871-1917. (Schocken Books, New York, 1977, 554 pages.) Covers the beginnings in Russia, the American Jewish Labor Movement, the Jewish Labor Bund in Russia, and Socialist Zionism.

Lewontin, R.C., Steven Rose, and Leon Kamin, Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology, and Human Nature. (Pantheon Books, New York, 1984, 332 pages.) An attack on the viciously reactionary ideology that has arisen which attempts to explain social behavior and social phenomenon in terms of genes. See also, Ruth Hubbard and Elijah Wald, Exploding the Gene Myth: How Genetic Information is Produced and Manipulated by Scientists, Physicians, Employers, Insurance Companies, Educators, and Law Enforcers (Beacon Press, Boston, 1993, 206 pages).

Libarle, Marc, and Tom Seligson, editors, The High School Revolutionaries. (Random House, New York, 1970, 276 pages.) It is not so well known that the revolts of the sixties also took place in High Schools. This is a collection of writings from those rebels, covering most of the major themes of the New Left. The collection was compiled by two New York City school teachers, after a summer in 1969 spent traveling, interviewing, and studying this movement.

London, Jack, The Social Writings of Jack London [1947]. (Citadel Press, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1964, 560 pages, edited by Philip S. Foner.) Includes a 127-page introduction by Foner, "Jack London: American Rebel". The knowledge that Jack London was a life-long socialist has been suppressed. He is now remembered chiefly for Call of the Wild, and White Fang, dog stories, now marketed as children’s books. Forgotten is that he stumped the country for decades preaching revolution and socialism. This collection includes excerpts from his socialist novel, The Iron Heel, plus radical short stories, autobiographical pieces like "How I Became a Socialist" and "In the London Slums", as well as essays on class struggle, scabs, and revolution. See also War of the Classes (Macmillan, New York, 1905, 278 pages), a collection of revolutionary essays. There is a biographical novel, by Irving Stone, Jack London: Sailor on Horseback (1938).

Long, Priscilla, Where the Sun Never Shines: A History of America’s Bloody Coal Industry. (Paragon House, New York, 1989, 420 pages.) "Between the years 1839-1914,over sixty-one thousand men perished in American coal mines. Combining miners’ personal stories with deft analysis [this book] ... relates the history of this dangerous industry from its introduction in the United States up to 1920. Beginning with the effects of immigration, technology, and labor unions on mining in the east, the story then moves west to the Rocky Mountains where the Colorado Fuel and Iron Strike culminated in the bloody Ludlow Massacre." (from the jacket)

Lukacs, Georg, Political Writings, 1919-1929. (New Left Books, London, 1968, 257 pages.) Lukacs [1885-1971], a Hungarian radical intellectual, a member of the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919, contributed significantly to the critique of the orthodox Marxism of the Second International. This collection of his early writings after he became a revolutionary is a good introduction. His greatest book though is: History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics [1923] (Merlin Press, 1971, 356 pages). He is an ambiguous thinker to my mind. During the same years he was helping establish a Hegelian version of Marxism after World War One, he wrote that embarrassing accolade to Lenin (Lenin: A Study on the Unity of His Thought, 1924), and found accomodation with the Soviet Union (at least up until it invaded Hungary in 1956), having escaped Nazism to the East rather than the West. He did write one of the strongest attacks on the Soviet bureaucracy to be published inside the country in the thirties, however. Overall, he can probably be claimed, with qualifications, for the libertarian side of communism. He wrote a book on The Young Hegel (1948, 576 pages); The Young Marx (1965); and a massive intellectual critique of reactionary philosophy (mostly German), The Destruction of Reason (1963, 865 pages). He was the first to transcribe Marx’s Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, which he found at the Institute of Marxism-Leninism in Moscow. He is perhaps most noted though as a literary critic, publishing titles such as: The Soul and the Forms; Aesthetics; The Historical Novel; The Theory of the Novel; Essays on Thomas Mann; Goethe and His Age; Realism in Our Time; and Solzhenitsyn. A collection of more explicitly political essays can be found in Marxism and Human Liberation (Delta, 1973, 332 pages). He spent the last years of his life writing Toward the Ontology of Social Being. He wrote The Process of Democratization after the Prague Spring in 1968 (published posthumously). See also, Theo Pinkus, editor, Conversations with Lukacs. For studies, see: Andrew Arato and Paul Breines, The Young Lukacs and the Origins of Western Marxism (1979); Michael Lowy, Georg Lukacs: From Romanticism to Bolshevism (1979); and Agnes Heller, editor, Lukacs Reappraised (1983, essays written by former students and colleagues).

Lummis, C. Douglas, Radical Democracy. (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1996, 185 pages.) One of the best of the recent spate of books about radical democracy. Marred though by an unawareness of capitalism, but otherwise insightful and stimulating. See also, David Trent, editor, Radical Democracy: Identity, Citizenship, and the State (Routledge, 1996, 239 pages), for a taste of what is passing for radical democratic theorizing by such contemporary activists as Stanley Aronowitz, Seyla Benhabib, Bogden Denitch, Barbara Ehrenreich, Henry Giroux, Bell Hooks, Manning Marable, Chantal Mouffe, Ellen Willis. I should warn you that only a couple (out of nineteen) essays in the book explicitly endorse direct democracy (in the sense of face-to-face assemblies).

Lumumba, Patrice, Lumumba Speaks: The Speeches and Writings of Patrice Lumumba 1958-1961 [1963]. (Little Brown, Boston, 1972, 433 pages, with a forty-nine page introduction by Jean-Paul Sartre.) An early, great fighter for African liberation in the Congo. Murdered by the Western colonial powers in 1961, and replaced first with Moise Tshombe, and then Joseph Mobutu, a brutal dictator whose reign of terror was propped up by the West until 1997.

Luxemburg, Rosa, Selected Political Writings. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1971, 441 pages.) One of the greatest revolutionaries in the Second International, from Poland, but active most of her life in Germany, especially in the Social Democratic Party there. A founder of the Spartacists at the end of WWI. She was murdered by the police during the ‘white terror’, along with Karl Liebnecht, Gustav Landauer, and thousands of other radicals, during the revolution in Germany in 1918-1919. Numerous essays have appeared in English as separate pamphlets over the years, for example, Reform or Revolution, and The Junius Pamphlet. Ann Arbor Paperbacks published her essays on The Russian Revolution and Leninism or Marxism? as a little book (1967, 109 pages). There are three other anthologies of selected writings available (by editors Paul LeBanc, Mary-Alice Waters, and Robert Looker). Several volumes of correspondence are available. Her major study of political economy is The Accumulation of Capital [1913] (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1951, 475 pages), followed somewhat later by an Anti-Critique: Or What the Epigoni Have Done with Marxist Theory (Allen Lane, 1972). The definitive biography is by Peter Nettl, Rosa Luxemburg (Oxford, London, 1966, 557 pages, a one volume English abridgement of the two volume German original). Another outstanding biography is by P. Frolich, Rosa Luxemburg: Ideas in Action [1939] (Pluto Press, 1972, 329 pages). A more recent biography is by Elzbieta Ettinger, Rosa Luxemburg (Beacon Press, 1986). A shorter introduction is by Stephen Eric Bronner, A Revolutionary for Our Times: Rosa Luxemburg.

Macdonald, Dwight, The Root is Man [1946]. (Autonomedia, Brooklyn, 1995, 187 pages.) Originally published in Politics, MacDonald’s very innovative and iconoclastic journal of the 1940s. It is Macdonald’s break with totalitarian Marxism, written in the 1940s in New York City, coming out of "a larger anti-totalitarian anarchist, pacifist, and independent Marxist milieu". A very stimulating book. A collection of his writings can be found in Politics Past: Essays in Political Criticism. A recent biography is by Michael Wreszin, A Rebel in Defense of Tradition: The Life and Politics of Dwight Macdonald.

MacLean, John, In the Rapids of Revolution: Essays, Articles, and Letters 1902-23. (Allison & Busby, London, 1978, 256 pages, edited an introduction and commentaries by Nan Milton.) Scottish revolutionary. Was active especially in the attempt to establish workers councils in Clydeside in 1919. This collection also contains of a wide range of additional essays on wartime munitions strikes, British and American imperialism, Irish independence struggle, the shop stewards movement, the Russian revolution, and so forth.

Magon, Ricardo Flores, Land and Liberty: Anarchist Influences in the Mexican Revolution. (Cienfuegos Press, Orkney, United Kingdom, 1977, 156 pages.) Rare English translations of writings by the greatest anarchist theorist of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. Contains also an introduction to Magon, a Magonist chronology, and an annotated bibliography.

Mahajan, Rahul, The New Crusade: America’s War On Terrorism. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 2002, 144 pages.) Exposes the many myths embedded in the government’s response to the events of September Eleven. See also, Noam Chomsky, 9-11 (Seven Stories Press); Michael Parenti, The Terrorism Trap (City Lights); Roger Burbach and Ben Clarke, editors, September 11 and the U.S. War: Beyond the Curtain of Smoke (City Lights); Don Hazen et al, eds., After 9/11: Solutions for a Saner World (AlterNet); Howard Zinn, Terrorism and War (Seven Stories); and As’ad Abukhalil, Bin Laden, Islam, and America’s New ‘War on Terrorism’ (Seven Stories).

Mailer, Phil, Portugal: The Impossible Revolution. (Black Rose Books, Montreal, and Solidarity, London, 1977, 399 pages, with an introduction by Maurice Brinton.) An eyewitness account, from an anarchist perspective, of the revolution in Portugal between April 25, 1974 and November 25, 1975 – with its soldiers and sailors committees, cooperative movements, land occupations, neighbourhood committees, workers councils, and popular assemblies – and its defeat.

Malatesta, Errico, Anarchy. (Many editions, e.g., Freedom Press, 1942, 7th edition, 36 pages.) A short statement of some of the main ideas about anarchy by a major Italian militant and founder of anarchism. For more see Vernon Richards, editor, Malatesta: His Life and Ideas (Freedom Press, London, 1965, 309 pages, a collection of Malatesta’s writings, plus a 38-page essay on Malatesta by Richards); and Errico Malatesta, The Anarchist Revolution: Polemical Articles 1924-1931 (Freedom Press, London, 1995, 123 pages).

Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks. (Grove Press, New York, 1966, 226 pages.) The most famous collection of Malcolm X speeches and statements, circulated widely among sixties radicals, with great impact. See also, The Autobiography of Malcolm X (Grove Press, 1964, 455 pages).

Malos, Ellen, editor, The Politics of Housework. (Allison and Busby, London, 1980, 286 pages.) An anthology of the major New Left texts (plus a few historical essays) about housework, and especially about the unpaid labor of housework. Includes the famous pamphlet by Mariarosa Dalla Costa and Selma James, "The Power of Women and the Subversion of the Community", which helped launch the Wages for Housework Campaign. Other insightful essays by Caroline Freeman, Margaret Bentson, Sylvia Federici, and others. (See also Edmonds above.)

Mander, Jerry, Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television. (Quill, New York, 1978, 371 pages.) If you’ve somehow missed this book so far, read it. That’s my advice. Even if you already hate television, you will still never think of television in quite the same way again. Mander studies the physiological effects of television, stemming from the injestion of artificial light, the slowing of metabolism, its hypnotic effect, and the brain’s handling of images, as well as the mental effects, like the walling of awareness, the dimming of the mind, how we turn into our images, how television images replace human images. He also locates the origin and foundation of the whole medium in advertising. And more. A must read.

Marat, Jean Paul, Writings of Jean Paul Marat. (International Publishers, New York, 1927, 78 pages, with a biographical sketch, and a glossary, from their Voices of Revolt series, a small book; similar volumes were published on Robespierre and Danton.) Contains ten short articles, letters, or excerpts, by this radical of the French Revolution. Marat published L’Ami du Peuple [Friend of the People] during the revolution and was a leader of the Jacobins, with Robespierre and Danton. His revolutionary writings, except for these brief pieces, have never been translated into English, as far as I know. There is a famous play by Peter Weiss, Marat/Sade (Atheneum, New York, 1965, 117 pages), which was also made into a terrific movie. For a study see, Louis Gottschalk, Jean Paul Marat: A Study in Radicalism (Phoenix Books, Chicago, 1967, 225 pages).

Marcuse, Herbert, An Essay on Liberation. (Beacon Press, Boston, 1969, 91 pages.) A sixties classic by a member of the Frankfurt School and one of the guiding lights of that generation.

Marcuse, Herbert, Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory [1941] (Humanities Press, New York, 2nd edition, 1954, 440 pages.) A major statement of Hegelian Marxism, by a member of the Frankfurt School, written in exile, at the Institute of Social Research, Columbia University, New York City, during the Second World War. For Marcuse’s critique of orthodox marxism, see Soviet Marxism (1958). For his left-wing, radical appropriation of Freud, see Eros and Civilization (1955). For his famous assessment of capitalist society in the early sixties, see One-Dimensional Man (1964). For a statement on the New Left as it neared its end, see Counterrevolution and Revolt (1972). For a critique of Marxist aesthetics, see The Aesthetic Dimension (1977). For his 1930s study of historical materialism, and of authority, see Studies in Critical Philosophy (1972). Collections of essays are: Negations: Essays in Critical Theory (1968), and Five Lectures: Psychoanalysis, Politics, and Utopia (1970). There are many secondary studies, but see, for example, Vincent Geoghegan, Reason & Eros: The Social Theory of Herbert Marcuse (Pluto Press), or Paul Breines, editor, Critical Interruptions: New Left Perspectives on Herbert Marcuse (Herder and Herder). A critical assessment by a council communist is Paul Mattick, Critique of Marcuse (Herder and Herder).

Markham, F.M.H., Henri Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825): Selected Writings. (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1952, 116 pages). St. Simon is often mentioned with Fourier and Owen as an originator of socialism in early nineteenth-century Europe. This collection contains translations of six essays (plus some letters), the longest being "The Reorganization of the European Community". There grew up a Saint-Simonian movement which didn’t really accurately reflect the ideas of Saint-Simon himself, and which put more stress on religion and order than on industry and science. For a study of St. Simon, see Frank Manuel, The New World of Henri St. Simon (1956). For a recent assessment of the Saint-Simonians see, Robert Carlisle, The Proffered Crown: Saint-Simonianism and the Doctrine of Hope (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1987, 269 pages), "the intriguing history of one of the most influential utopian movements of the nineteenth century." (jacket)

Martin, Michael, The Case Against Christianity. (Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1991, 273 pages.) A philosopher undertakes a systematic examination of ten key Christian beliefs, using textual analysis of the scriptures themselves, historical evidence, comparison with other established knowledge, and reason. The ten doctrines are: (1) thesism (belief in an all-powerful, all-good, and all-knowing Being who created the universe; (2) the existence of an historical Jesus in Pilate’s time; (3) the incarnation (belief that Jesus is the Son of God and is both human and divine); (4) the trinity (God, the Son of God, and the Holy Ghost are one); (5) the virgin birth; (6) the crucifixion by Pilate; (7) the resurrection of Jesus on the third day; (8) salvation through faith in Jesus; (9) the second coming of Jesus; and (10) Jesus as the model of ethical behavior. Martin concludes: "We have seen in the preceding chapters that the major doctrines of Christianity should not be believed." He also considers various Christian responses to his analysis.

Martov, Julius [Yulii O. Zederbaum], State and the Socialist Revolution [1919-1923]. (International Review, New York, 1938, 64 pages.) The only English translations that I know of, of the voluminous writings of Lenin’s main democratic opponent (defeated and now unknown) through two decades of revolutionary struggle. See also the biography by Israel Getzler, Martov (Melbourne University Press, 1967, 246 pages), for a healthy antidote for any who have been afflicted with Leninism.

Marx, Karl, Value, Price and Profit [1865]. (International Publishers, New York, 1936, 62 pages.) A talk given to the General Council of the First International in June 1865. A brief statement of Marx’s theory that profit comes from unpaid wages and not from selling products for more than they are worth. An excellent introduction to Marx. For more, see the 800 page, one volume Selected Works of Marx and Engels by International Publishers. This collection should be supplemented with works from Marx’s early years, especially The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, and An Introduction to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. A nice little biography of Marx is by Werner Blumenberg, Portrait of Marx: An Illustrated Biography (Herder & Herder, 1972, 196 pages).

Marx, Karl, Capital [1867]. (Vintage, New York, 1977, 1141 pages, newly translated by Ben Fowkes.) The most blistering, profound, and eloquent attack on capitalists ever written, a blow from which they are still reeling, and from which they will never recover. (This is the only volume of Capital published by Marx himself. Volumes two and three were edited by Engels after Marx died. Volume four, Theories of Surplus Value (in three books), was edited Karl Kautsky and published by the Institute of Marxism-Leninism in Moscow. The massive first draft of Capital, written in 1857-58, known as the Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy, was not published until 1939.) Use this new translation of Das Capital, as it’s more accessible to the modern reader. This 1977 Vintage edition also includes the first English translation of the long manuscript (135 pages) which Marx had originally planned as Part Seven of Capital (volume one), but never included (entitled, "Results of the Immediate Process of Production"). Among his many other works are: The Holy Family or Critique of Critical Critique: Against Bruno Bauer and Company [1845] (his break with Left Hegelians); The Poverty of Philosophy [1847] (his dispute with Proudhon’s ‘The Philosophy of Poverty’); The Communist Manifesto (with Engels) [1848] (a manifesto written for the revolutions of 1848); The German Ideology [1845-46, with Engels] (which is a long summary of the break with Left Hegelians, including a long chapter on Ludwig Feuerbach and a 375 page critique of Max Stirner); and Class Struggles in France 1848-1850 and The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (Marx’s studies of the revolutions of 1848).

Matthiessen, Peter, In The Spirit of Crazy Horse [1983]. (Viking Penguin, New York, 1992, 688 pages.)

A study of the shoot-out between FBI agents and Native Americans at the Pine Ridge Reservation (near Wounded Knee, South Dakota), in June 1975, which resulted in the imprisonment of Leonard Peltier, and also of the background to that event, the Lakota tribe’s long struggle with the U.S. Government, from Red Cloud’s War and the Battle Little Big Horn on. See also, Jim Messerschmidt, The Trial of Leonard Peltier (South End Press, Boston, 1982, 232 pages). (See also entries for Roger Owen, Dee Brown, Paul Smith, and Gloria Jahoda.)

Mattick, Paul, Anti-Bolshevik Communism. (M.E. Sharpe, White Plains, New York, 1978, 231 pages.) A collection of essays spanning 30 years (1935-67) by a leading council communist from Germany, exiled in the US, along with comrades Anton Pannekoek and Karl Korsch, by the Nazis. A good introduction to the council communist perspective, with essays on workers control, Bolshevism, Kautsky, Luxemburg, humanism, monopoly capital, and so forth. Mattick’s other books in English are: Marx and Keynes: The Limits of the Mixed Economy (1969); Critique of Marcuse (1972); Economic Crisis and Crisis Theory (1981); Marxism: The Last Refuge of the Bourgeoisie (1983); Economics, Politics, and the Age of Inflation (1980).

Maximoff, Gregory Petrovich, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents). (The Alexander Berkman Fund, Chicago Section, 1940, 624 pages.) The Russian Revolution as seen by an anarcho-syndicalist, who believed that marxism-leninism was a counter-revolutionary doctrine, and that the "great Russian Revolution was ultimately perverted and channeled into an authoritarian and repressive regime." (preface) Discusses Lenin’s road to power, the absolutist and terrorist nature of the marxist state, the Bolshevik counter-revolution, and so forth. (The second half of this book is an extensive documentation of the persecution of anarchists under Lenin. This half was omitted in the Cienfuegos Press reissue of the book in 1979, at least in the book labeled Volume I, 337 pages; was Volume II ever issued?) See also, Boris Souvarine, Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism (Longmans, Green, New York, 1939, 690 pages, translated by C.L.R. James, based in part on Arshinov); Fritz Sternberg, The End of a Revolution: Soviet Russia from Revolution to Reaction (John Day, New York, 1953, 191 pages); Robert V. Daniels, The Conscience of the Revolution: Communist Opposition in Soviet Russia (1960, 526 pages), an account of left opposition to the Bolsheviks; and more recently, Samuel Farber, Before Stalinism: The Rise and Fall of Soviet Democracy (Verso, 1990, 288 pages), who also attributes the downfall of the Russian Revolution to Lenin, not Stalin; Daniel H. Kaiser, editor, The Worker’s Revolution in Russia, 1917: The View from Below (1987, 152 pages); Jay Sorenson, The Life and Death of Soviet Trade Unionism 1917-1928 (1969, 283 pages); Leonard Shapiro, The Origin of the Communist Autocracy: Political Opposition in the Soviet State: First Phase 1917-1922 (1955,1977, 397 pages); and Ante Ciliga, The Russian Enigma [1938, 1959] (Ink Links, 1979, 573 pages). For more standard one-volume pro-Bolshevik, liberal, or establishment accounts see: John Reed, Ten Days That Shook the World (1919, 371 pages); William Z. Foster, The Russian Revolution (1921); Alan Moorehead, The Russian Revolution (1958); Marcel Liebman, The Russian Revolution (1967); and Victor Serge, Year One of the Russian Revolution (1930). The two big mainstream histories are: E.H. Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution 1917-1923 (1966, 3 vols); and W.H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution 1917-1921 (1965, 2 vols). (See also the entries Berkman, Brinton, Maximoff, Voline, Mett, Gorter, Pannekoek, Mattick, Makhno, for other anti-Bolshevik accounts of the Russian revolution.)

Maximoff, Gregory Petrovich, Constructive Anarchism [1930]. (Maximoff Memorial Publication Committee, Chicago, 1952, 152 pages, forward by George Woodcock.) "The development of anarcho-syndicalist ideas on working class organisation and the revolutionary struggle for the libertarian reconstruction of society, from the First International to the 1930s. A defence of Anarcho-syndicalism against ‘Platformism’ and ‘Synthetical’ anarchism." This is the publisher blurb for the Monty Miller Press (Sydney, 1988, 44 pages) reprint of part one of the above book. To this edition they also appended the documents Maximoff was discussing, namely (1) The Organisational Platform of a General Union of Anarchists, by the Dielo Trouda Group (Nestor Makhno, Piotr Arshinov, Ida Mett, Valevsky, Linsky); (2) The Reply, by ‘Several Russian Anarchists’ (Sobol, Schwartz, Steimer, Voline, Lia, Roman, Ervantian, Fleshin); (3) The Malatesta/Makhno Exchange. Part two was also reprinted as a pamphlet by Monty Miller Press, as The Program of Anarcho-Syndicalism (Sydney, 1985, 64 pages). This is a very detailed proposal for organizing society along anarcho-syndicalist lines, and includes discussions of manufacturing, public services, taxation, nationalities, international relations, defense, marital and family law, and so forth.

McCord, William, Mississippi: The Long, Hot Summer. (Norton, New York, 1965, 222 pages.) The story of the civil rights struggle in 1964: the voter registration campaigns, the Freedom Schools, the emergence of the Freedom Party, the murders, bombings, and burnings, and so forth, representing a coordinated attack on the bastions of segregation in Mississippi by a coalition of all the major civil rights organizations: The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the NAACP, and the National Council of Churches.

McCoy, Alfred W., The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade [1972]. (Lawrence Hill Books, Brooklyn, 1991, 634 pages, revised and expanded edition.) One of the first books to explose, in a carefully researched study, toward the end of the war against Vietnam, the involvement of the United States government in drug trafficing. A blockbuster of a book. There are by now other books on the topic, including: Peter Dale Scott and Jonathan Marshall, Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America (University of California Press, 1998, 279 pages, revised edition); and Gary Webb, Dark Alliance (Seven Stories Press, 1999, 608 pages, revised). Webb, an investigative reporter at the San Jose Mercury News, broke the story of the CIA’s involvement in the explosion of crack cocaine addiction in California’s ghettos. For a study of the failure of domestic policies on drugs, see Dan Baum, Smoke and Mirrors: The War on Drugs and the Politics of Failure (Little, Brown, 1997, 416 pages).

McKercher, William R., Freedom and Authority. (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1989, 300 pages.) A study of the struggle between anti-statist libertarians and anarchists, and authoritarian statist marxists in the later decades of nineteenth century England. Includes a long libertarian critique (pages 15-69) of John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty; another long chapter (pages 71-151) on "The Writings of William Morris as an Expression of Libertarian Thought"; and third long chapter (pages 153-229) on "Libertarian Propaganda and Personalities in England"; concludes with shorter essays on the concepts of authority, liberty, freedom. Twenty-one page bibliography of mostly libertarian references (with many figures relatively unknown in America, like Aldred, Bax, Carpenter, Davidson, Donisthorpe, Harris, Nicoll, Owen, Seymour, Wilson). A very interesting book.

McNally, David, Against the Market: Political Economy, Market Socialism, and the Marxian Critique. (Verso, London, 1993, 262 pages.) A brilliant reconstruction of the decades-long dispute between Marx and Proudhon over the market. An insightful work. Very helpful in getting a handle on so-called ‘market socialism’.

Menchu, Rigoberta, I, Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian Woman in Guatemala. (Verso, London, 1983, 252 pages.) A young peasant woman, who lived through years of terror by the U.S. backed regimes during which time 200,000 activists, labor leaders, progressives, peasants, and citizens, were murdered, talks about her life. Guatemala is one of the great horror stories of the last half-century. The United States Government overthrew a legally elected government there, that of Jacobo Arbenz, in the infamous coup of 1954, and has kept installed in Guatemala ever since one puppet dictator after another (war criminals all). A classic banana republic.

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, Adventures of the Dialectic [1955] (Northwestern University Press, Evanston, 1973, 237 pages), and Humanism and Terror: An Essay on the Communist Problem [1947] (Beacon Press, Boston, 1969, 189 pages). Two key texts of ‘western marxism’ by a co-founder, with Jean-Paul Sartre, of the radical French journal in the late forties, Les Temps Moderne, which was a break-away from orthodox marxism. Most of his books are now available in English. See for example, Phenomenology of Perception; The Primacy of Perception; Sense and Non-Sense; or The Visible and the Invisible. The best secondary study is by James Schmidt (see below), but see also Sonia Kruks, The Political Philosophy of Merleau-Ponty.

Merrill, Richard, editor, Radical Agriculture. (Harper and Row, New York, 1976, 459 pages.) Twenty essays on a wide variety of topics relating to the critique of agribusiness and the creation of a self-sustaining agriculture, covering land reform, energy efficiency, food cooperatives, urban agriculture, organic farming, aquaculture, biological pest control, and so forth. See also, From the Ground Up: Rethinking Industrial Agriculture, by Peter Goering (St. Martin’s Press, 1993, 120 pages). (See also the entry for Vandana Shiva.)

Merriman, Roger Bigelow, Six Contemporaneous Revolutions [1938]. (Archon Books, Hamden, Connecticut, 1963, 230 pages.) A comparative history of six seventeenth century rebellions in Europe: in Catalonia, Portugal, Naples, the Netherlands, the Puritan Revolution in England, and the Fronde (France).

Meszaros, Istvan, Socialism or Barbarism: From the ‘American Century’ to the Crossroads. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 2001, 126 pages). A nice brief assessment by a leading marxist of where we stand as of 2001, having entered the "deadliest phase of imperialism". His big book is Beyond Capital (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1994, 994 pages). Earlier books include: The Necessity of Social Control (1971); Marx’s Theory of Alienation (1975); Philosophy, Ideology, and Social Science: Essays in Negation and Affirmation (1986); The Power of Ideology (1989).

Mett, Ida, The Kronstadt Uprising [1938]. (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1971, 98 pages.) A brief account of a revolt in Soviet Russia, suppressed by the Bolsheviks, which probably marked the end of the Russian revolution as a liberatory force. See also the more detailed study by Paul Avrich, Kronstadt 1921.

Midgley, Mary, Beast and Man: The Roots of Human Nature. (Routledge, London, 1979, revised edition, 1995, 377 pages.) The sanest guide yet through the quagmire of the nature/nurture debate, by a leading British philosopher. She’s also thoroughly grounded in animal studies. Tackles sociobiology in an open-minded yet critical way, trying to glean what nuggets of insight she can from it. A wise book.

Midnight Notes, The New Enclosures. (Autonomedia, Brooklyn, distributor, 1990, 101 pages.) This was Issue No. 10 of the occasional journal, Midnight Notes, out of Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, by a group of iconoclastic, innovative radical theorists. Has studies of various aspects of the new, vigorous, unrelenting, worldwide enclosures movement. Contains also a very creative proposal for the establishment of neighborhood and household cooperatives in Zurich, with links to the countryside.

Miliband, Ralph, The State in Capitalist Society. (Basic Books, New York, 1969, 292 pages.) This book restarted the debate about the state on the left in the late sixties. Yet another classic from that decade. For a review of the debate two decades later, see Fred Block, "State Theory in Context," chapter one in his Revising State Theory (Temple University Press, 1987, 220 pages). Neither author really considers the anarchist position on the state, as expressed for example by Kropotkin, The State, or by Bakunin, Statism and Anarchy. A useful social science book on the state is Lawrence Krader, The Formation of the State (Printice-Hall, 1968, 118 pages).

Miller, James, Democracy Is In the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1987, 431 pages.) A major history of the sixties. The full text of the 1962 Port Huron statement is reprinted in an appendix. This history of the sixties ends in 1968. For the period 1968-1970, the most militant years of the New Left, see George Katsiaficas, The Imagination of the New Left: A Global Analysis of 1968 (South End Press, 1987, 323 pages).

Miller, Sally, The Radical Immigrant. (Twayne Publishers, New York, 1974, 212 pages.) Covers Antebellum Radical Immigrants [to the United States] (Communitarians, Labor Activists, and Immigrant Feminists); Forty-eighter Radicals (Doctrinaire Radicals, Militant Abolitionists, and Radical Politicians; Radical Labor (Miners and Milworkers, Needle Workers); Revolutionaries (Socialists, Anarchists), with opening and concluding essays. See also, Paul Buhle and Dan Georgakas, editors, The Immigrant Left in the United States (State University of New York Press, Albany, 1996, 349 pages). Covers Mexican, German, Italian, Polish, Ukranian, Greek, Arab, Asian, and Haitian immigrant radicalism.

Minter, William, King Solomon's Mines Revisited: Western Interests and the Burdened History of Southern Africa. (Basic Books, New York, 1986, 401 pages.) An outstanding history of Southern Africa by a New Left radical. See also, Nelson Mandela’s autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom (Abacus, London, 1994, 768 pages).

Morris, Margaret, The General Strike. (Penguin, 1976, 479 pages, with 23 photos plus other graphics.) The history of the nine-day general strike in England from May 4 to May 12, 1926 – its origin, local and national levels, the road to confrontation with the state, the strike’s defeat. The last part of the book reprints eight supplementary essays by other authors.

Morris, William, Political Writings. (International Publishers, New York, 1973, 246 pages.) Writings of a unique, anti-authoritarian, independent, non-marxist, nineteenth-century radical. He fought hard for the liberation of labor, the recovery of art, communitarianism. See also, Three Works (Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1968, which reprints Morris’ News from Nowhere, The Pilgrims of Hope, and A Dream of John Ball). The big biography is by E.P. Thompson, William Morris: From Romantic to Revolutionary (Pantheon, New York, 1976, 830 pages), but see also the long chapter two in William McKercher’s Freedom and Authority, "The Writings of William Morris as an Expression of Libertarian Thought" (pages 71-151); and Lloyd Wendell Eshleman, A Victorian Rebel: The Life of William Morris.

Morris, William Dale, The Christian Origins of Social Revolt. (Allen and Unwin, London, 1949, 239 pages). Seeks to counter the neglect of the christian ethic, as a source for social revolt, by the anti-religious beliefs of contemporary socialists. Begins with the social heresies of the Middle Ages (Bogomili, Franciscans, Zealots, Arnoldists, Apoltolic Brethren, Waldenses, Beghards, Beguins, Lollards), then the Hussites, Taborites, Calixtins, Anabaptists, the peasant war in Germany, the Levellers, Diggers, and Quakers, to the Christian Socialists of 1848-1854.

Muste, A.J., The Essays of A.J. Muste [1905-1966]. (Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1967, 515 pages.) One of America’s greatest Christian pacifists. A tireless activist against war – the 1st and 2nd World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War. Agitated and wrote about the atomic bomb, civil disobedience, the labor movement, the civil rights movement, and more.

Nader, Ralph, The Ralph Nader Reader. (Seven Stories Press, New York, 2000, 441 pages.) The collected essays, 1959 to 2000, of America’s most famous progressive populist. Most progressive populists believe that we used to have a democracy in the United States but it has been stolen from us by large corporations, that it is possible to go back to small scale capitalism (with which they have no problem), that it is possible to restore the welfare state, and that we could gain control of congress and enact the progressive agenda into law. None of this is true. Nader has a new book just out, which reiterates many of his themes in the context of an account of his run for the presidency in 2000 (Crashing the Party). Many of the most well-known voices on the ‘left’ today in the United States are progressive populists. For example: Molly Ivins (Nothin’ but Good Times Ahead, and You Got to Dance with Them What Brung You); Jim Hightower (There’s Nothing in the Middle of the Road but Yellow Lines and Dead Armadillos, and If The Gods Had Meant Us to Vote They Would Have Given Us Candidates); Lori Wallach (Whose Trade Organization? Corporate Globalization and the Erosion of Democracy, with others); Gore Vidal (The Decline and Fall of the American Empire); Helen Caldicott (Nuclear Madness, and New Nuclear Danger); Gerry Spence (From Freedom to Slavery: The Rebirth of Tyranny in America); and Michael Moore (Downsize This, and Stupid White Men).

Navarro, Vicente, Medicine Under Capitalism. (Neale Watson Academic Publications, New York, 1976, 230 pages.) A marxist looks at health care. See also his Crisis, Health, and Medicine: A Social Critique (Tavistock, 1986), and Dangerous to Your Health: Capitalism in Health Care (Monthly Review Press, 1993). For an early radical critique of the medical establishment, from the New Left, see Barbara and John Ehrenreich, The American Health Empire: Power, Profits, and Politics (Random House, New York, 1970, 279 pages). See also, Dave Lindorff, Marketplace Medicine: The Rise of the For-Profit Hospital Chains (Bantam Books, New York, 1992, 316 pages); and Sheldon Blau and Elaine Shimberg, How to Get Out of the Hospital Alive: A Guide to Patient Power (Macmillan, 1997, 226 pages).

Negri, Toni, Revolution Retrieved: Selected Writings on Marx, Keynes, Capitalist Crisis, and New Social Subjects, 1967-83. (Red Notes, London, 1988, 274 pages.) A major theorist of the autonomy movement in Italy in the seventies. See also The Politics of Subversion: A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century (Polity Press, 1989, 232 pages). His more recent work has unfortunately veered toward the academic.

Nettlau, Max, A Short History of Anarchism [1932-34]. (Freedom Press, London, 1996, 406 pages.) Nettlau is the greatest historian of anarchism so far. This book is a sort of summary, abridgment, or distillation of his nine-volume history of anarchism. It’s a world history, including a chapter on libertarian ideas up until 1789. The book has a bibliographical guide to Nettlau’s historical works. Before this book, there were only some short pamphlets in English, published in England around the turn of the century. In addition to his big history he wrote a biography of Bakunin, as well as studies of Proudhon, Kropotkin, Malatesta, and Elie Reclus, and much else. Nettlau was also a great archivist and blbliographer of anarchism, and a stalwart of Freedom Press in its early years.

Nizan, Paul, The Watchdogs: Philosophers and the Established Order [1960]. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1972, 185 pages.) A close friend of Jean-Paul Sartre in the 1920s-30s, Nizan left the communist party in 1939. He died in the Second World War, at the age of 35. This is an angry, unrelenting attack on the pre-war intellectual establishment in France (targeting figures such as Leon Brunschvicg, who is virtually unknown today in America). See also, his moving autobiographical essay, Aden, Arabie (1960), of which Sartre wrote: "It is not a bad thing to begin with this naked revolt. At the beginning of everything there is first of all refusal." See also, his novel, Antoine Bloye. For a study, see W.D. Redfern, Paul Nizan, Committed Literature in a Conspiratorial World (1972).

Noble, David F., Progress Without People: In Defense of Luddism. (Charles H. Kerr, Chicago, 1993, 145 pages.) Demolishes the myth that technology is neutral. Demonstrates how current technology embodies the imperatives of capital. A strong corrective to technological determinism, to those who seek technological solutions to all social problems, to those who naively sing the praises of automation, and to those who insist that there is nothing wrong with our technology per se but only with how it is being used. See also his America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism (Oxford, 1977, 384 pages). His big book on this topic is Forces of Production: A Social History of Industrial Automation (Knopf, 1984, 416 pages).

O’Brien, Mary, The Politics of Reproduction. (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1981, 240 pages.) Demonstrates how the traditional canon of Western political thought, which has been written mainly by men, has been distorted and impoverished by the exclusion of reproduction, and by the separation of social life into public and private spheres.

Ollman, Bertell, and Jonathan Birnbaum, editors, The United States Constitution: 200 Years of Anti-Federalist, Abolitionist, Feminist, Muckraking, Progressive, and Especially Socialist Criticism. (New York University Press, New York, 1990, 332 pages.) Classic statements by Patrick Henry and other anti-federalists, J. Allen Smith, Charles Beard, Jackson Turner Main, Frederick Douglas, W.E.B. DuBois, Daniel DeLeon, plus essays on the Articles of Confereration, and more contemporary essays. See also, Jules Lobel, editor, A Less Than Perfect Union: Alternative Perspectives on the U.S. Constitution, and Jerry Fresia, Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and Other Illusions. For more of the historical documents relating to the constitution itself, see: Ralph Ketcham, editor, The Anti-Federalist Papers and the Constitutional Convention Debates (1986, 406 pages). Three books by Merrill Jensen are helpful as background studies: The Making of the Constitution (1964, 191 pages); The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution 1774-1781 (1940, 284 pages); and The New Nation: A History of the United States during the Confederation 1781-1789 (1950, 433 pages). (See also entries for Aptheker, Storing.)

Orwell, George, Homage to Catalonia (Secker & Warburg, London, 1938, 314 pages); Animal Farm: A Fairy Story [1945] (Secker and Warburg, 1995, 180 pages; this edition is beautifully illustrated by Ralph Steadman, with the original, never-published, preface, and a preface written for a Ukrainina edition, added as appendices); and Nineteen Eighty Four (Secker & Warburg, 1949, 314 pages). These are Orwell’s three most famous books, the first an account of his experience in the Spanish Revolution, and the second and third his response to authoritarian socialism. He is one of Britain’s most famous independent radicals. He wrote many other books, including: Down and Out in Paris and London; Burmese Days; and The Road to Wigan Pier. His essays, journalism, and letters were collected by Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus in four volumes. For a study see George Woodcock, The Crystal Spirit: A Study of George Orwell (1966); and also Peter Lewis, George Orwell: The Road to 1984 (1981, with many photos).

Ostergaard, Geoffrey, The Tradition of Workers’ Control: Selected Writings. (Freedom Press, London, 1997, 154 pages.) The title essay, written in 1956 (pp. 27-94), is an excellent overview of the subject for Britain. Covers British syndicalism and its disintegration, guild socialism, and so forth. Has an introduction and afterword by Brian Bamford. There is a substantial literature on workers’ control. For individual countries, for example, see Ian Clegg, Workers’ Self-Management in Algeria (Monthly Review Press, 1971); Vladimir Fisera, editor, Workers’ Councils in Czechoslovakia: Documents and Essays 1968-69 (Allison & Busby, 1978); Paolo Spriano, The Occupation of the Factories: Italy 1920 (Pluto Press, 1964); Nancy Gina Bermeo, The Revolution within the Revolution: Workers’ Control in Rural Portugal (Princeton, 1986); Najdan Pasic, editor, Workers’ Management in Yugoslavia: Recent Developments and Trends (International Labor Office, 1982); Branko Pribicevic, The Shop Stewards’ Movement and Workers’ Control 1910-1922 [in Britain] (Blackwell, 1959); Michel Raptis, Revolution and Counter Revolution in Chile: A Dissier on Workers’ Participation in the Revolutionary Process (St. Martin’s Press, 1973); Donny Gluckstein, The Western Soviets: Workers’ Councils versus Parliament 1915-1920 [with focus on Scotland, Germany, Italy] (Bookmarks, 1985); Carmen Sirianni, Workers Control and Socialist Democracy: The Soviet Experience (Verso, 1982); David Montgomery, Workers’ Control in America (Cambridge University Press, 1979, with bibliographical essay). There are several anthologies, the most substantial being Branko Karvat, Mihailo Markovic, and Rudi Supek, editors, Self-Governing Socialism (in two volumes, International Arts and Sciences Press, 1975, 490 & 327 pages), but see also, Ken Coates and Anthony Topham, editors, Industrial Democracy in Great Britain: A Book of Readings and Witnesses for Workers’ Control (Macgibbon & Kee, 1968); Jaroslav Vanek, editor, Self-Management: Economic Liberation of Man (Penguin, 1975); Gerry Hunnius, G. David Garson, and John Case, editors, Workers’ Control: A Reader on Labor and Social Change (Vintage, 1973); Frank Lindenfeld and Joyce Rothschild-Whitt, editors, Workplace Democracy and Social Change (Porter Sargent, 1982); and Jon Wisman, editor, Worker Empowerment: The Struggle for Workplace Democracy (Bootstrap Press, 1991). For more general studies, see Daniel Zwerdling, Workplace Democracy: A Guide to Workplace Ownership, Participation, and Self-Management Experiments in the United States and Europe (Harper, 1978); H.B. Wilson, Democracy and the Workplace (Black Rose Books, 1974); Ken Coates, Essays on Industrial Democracy (Spokesman Books, 1971); Assef Bayat, Work, Politics, and Power: An International Perspective on Workers’ Control and Self-Management (Monthly Review Press, 1991); George Benello, From the Ground Up: Essays on Grassroots and Workplace Democracy (South End Press, 1992); Adolf Sturmthal, Workers Councils: A Study of Workplace Organization on both sides of the Iron Curtain (Harvard, 1964). (See also, the entries here for Anweiler, Krimerman, Anderson, Richards, Rocker, Pannekoek, Gorter, Pankhurst, Korsch, James (1958), Haffner, Gwyn Williams, Debord, Dolgoff (1974), Curl, Cole, Castoriadis (1972), Brinton, Carsten, Kasmir.)

Owen, Robert, A New View of Society and Other Writings. (Everyman Library, Dent & Dutton, London, 1927, 298 pages.) An early socialist, and founder of the cooperative movement as well as several communal experiments in England and America. See also, A.L. Morton, The Life and Ideas of Robert Owen (Monthly Review Press, 1963, 187 pages). The first 54 pages of this book is an introduction by Morton, and rest is selected writings by Owen. A biography is G.D.H. Cole, Robert Owen. See also, Arthur Bestor, Backwoods Utopias: The Sectarian Origins and the Owenite Phase of Communitarian Socialism in America, 1663-1829.

Owen, Roger, James Deetz, and Anthony Fisher, editors, The North American Indians: A Sourcebook. (Macmillan, New York, 1967, 752 pages.) A huge anthology of scholarly studies (anthropological, historical, linguistic). A comprehensive suvey, from the Aleuts in Alaska to the Cherokee in Georgia. A similar volume is by Wendell H. Oswalt, This Land Was Theirs: A Study of the North American Indian (John Wiley, New York, 1966, 560 pages). Covers: Chipewyan, Beothuk, Kuskowagamiut, Cahuilla, Fox, Pawnee, Tlingit, Hopi, Iroquois, and Natchez., with a map of North America showing tribal territories before 1600. For South America, see Julian Steward and Louis Faron, The Native Peoples of South America (McGraw-Hill, New York ,1959, 481 pages).

Paine, Thomas, The Thomas Paine Reader. (Penguin Books, New York, 1987, 536 pages.) A fine collection of the important works of the most radical theorist of the American Revolution. Not so radical perhaps when compared with Godwin’s Political Justice [1793], which appeared a year after Paine’s Rights of Man . Paine was not anti-capitalist, a politics which hardly even existed at the time. Nor was he an advocate of direct democracy. But still. This collection contains some relatively unknown minor works on the agrarian question, constitutional reform, principles of government. For studies, see Eric Foner, Tom Paine and Revolutionary America (Oxford, 1976, 326 pages), and John Keane, Tom Paine: A Political Life (Little Brown, Boston, 1995, 644 pages).

Pankhurst, Sylvia, A Sylvia Pankhurst Reader, edited by Kathryn Dodd. (Manchester University Press, Manchester, United Kingdom, 1993, 248 pages.) An early feminist and suffragette, and an anarcho-syndicalist and anti-bolshevik communist, allied with the Kollontai (in Russia), Pannekoek, Roland-Holst, and Gorter (in Holland), and Gramsci and Bordiga (in Italy). She was the target of Lenin’s notorious pamphlet, Left-Wing Communism: An Infantile Disorder. Pankhurst adapted the concept of councils to women, neighborhoods, and the unemployed. She published Britain’s liveliest left communist newspaper, Workers’ Dreadnought (formerly Woman’s Dreadnought) from 1914-1921. For a biography, see Patricia W. Romero, E. Sylvia Pankhurst: Portrait of a Radical.

Pankhurst, Richard, William Thompson (1775-1833): Pioneer Socialist. (Pluto Press, London, 1991, 173 pages.) Thompson was a forerunner of Marx. "The most important theoretician among the early socialists and, with Robert Owen, one of the two most outstanding leaders of the Co-operative Movement [in England]....became a leading exponent of ‘the doctrine of exploitation’, and a passionate apostle of equality." (from jacket). Wrote An Inquiry into the Principles of the Distribution of Wealth [1824], Labour Rewarded [1827], and with, Anna Wheeler, Appeal of One Half the Human Race, Women, Against the Pretensions of the Other Half, Men [1825] (Theommes Press, Bristol, UK, 1994, 221 pages).

Pannekoek, Anton, Lenin as Philosopher: A Critical Examination of the Philosophical Basis of Leninism [1938]. (Republished by Merlin Press in London in 1975 from the first English edition of 1948, 132 pages.) Pannekoek was a Dutch left communist, or council communist, from the anarcho-syndicalist tradition. This is a thorough refutation of Leninism from an anarchist perspective.

Pannekoek, Anton, Workers Councils [1941-42]. (First published in English as a book in Melbourne, Australia in 1950, 231 pages.) This is the defining text of the ‘council communists’ – Anton Pannekoek, Herman Gorter, Henrietta Roland-Holst, Karl Korsch – the left wing of the German and Dutch communist parties. It has never been reprinted as a book, although it is now available on the Internet. See also, Serge Bricianer, Pannekoek and the Workers’ Councils (Telos Press, 1978, 304 pages), and John Gerber, Anton Pannekoek and the Socialism of Workers’ Self-Emancipation, 1873-1960 (Kluwer, 1989, 250 pages).

Parenti, Christian, Lockdown America: Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis. (Verso, London, 1999, 290 pages.) Documents the vast expansion of prisons and police forces, and the militarization of police. He locates these developments historically and politically as a response to the revolts of the sixties. A thoroughly researched study. See also, The Iron Fist and The Velvet Glove: An Analysis of the U.S. Police [1975], by radical criminologists surrounding the Center for Research on Criminal Justice in Berkeley, California, one of the best analyses of police to come out of the sixties (3rd edition, 1982). See also, Scott Christianson, With Liberty For Some: 500 Years of Imprisonment in America (Northeastern, 2000, 394 pages); Fay Honey Knopp, Instead of Prisons: A Prison Abolitionist’s Handbook (1976); Paul Chevigny, Cops & Rebels: A Study of Provocation (1972); Sidney Harring, Policing a Class Society: The Experience of American Cities 1865-1915 (1983); Tom Wicker, A Time to Die [the Attica prison revolt of 1971] (1975); Jeffrey Reiman, The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison: Ideology, Class, and Criminal Justice (1979, 1984); Erik Olin Wright, The Politics of Punishment: A Critical Analysis of Prisons in America (1973); Jessica Mitford, Kind and Usual Punishment: The Prison Business (1971); and, for a philosophical, post-modernist approach from France, see Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (1975).

Parenti, Michael, Against Empire. (City Lights Books, San Francisco, 1995, 217 pages.) Michael Parenti writes clearly and with punch. "A brilliant expose of the brutal realities of U.S. Global Domination ... exposes the ruthless agenda and hidden costs of the U.S. empire today ... documenting the pretexts and lies used to justify violent intervention and maldevelopment abroad." (from the jacket). Parenti is a brilliant radical writer. His other books (besides the three listed below) are: Dirty Truths (1996); Land of Idols: Political Mythology in America (1994); The Sword and the Dollar: Imperialism, Revolution, and the Arms Race (1989); Power and the Powerless (1978); Ethnic and Political Attitudes (1975); Trends and Tragedies in American Foreign Policy (1971); The Anti-Communist Impulse (1969); Blackshirts and Reds: Rational Fascism and the Overthrow of Communism (1997); To Kill a Nation: The Attack on Yugoslavia (2000); The Terrorism Trap: September 11 and Beyond (2002); America Beseiged (1998); History as Mystery (1999)

Parenti, Michael, Make-Believe Media: The Politics of Entertainment. (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1992, 241 pages.) One of the most thoroughly radical demolition jobs on movies and television. Exposes the pro-establishment slant even of movies like On the Waterfront and Viva Zapata! See also, his Inventing Reality: The Politics of News Media (1986, 1993). (See also entries for Solomon, Schiller, Herman/Chomsky, Aronson.)

Parenti, Michael, Democracy For The Few [1974]. (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2001, 7th edition, 351 pages.) A famous book, now in its seventh edition, which proves beyond any doubt that the United States is a democracy only for the ruling class. A hundred years ago, it was commonplace among radicals that the United States was a plutocracy, a country ruled by the rich. That knowledge has been mostly eradicated however by the power of ruling class cultural, educational, and media institutions.

Parsons, Lucy, Lucy Parsons Speaks. (Charles Kerr, Chicago, 2000, 208 pages.) Recently collected and republished for the first time, these are the speeches and writings of one of American greatest revolutionaries. A Chicago anarchist, from even before Haymarket. Participated in the founding of the IWW. See also the biography by Carolyn Ashbaugh, Lucy Parsons: American Revolutionary [1853-1942] (Kerr, 1976, 288 pages).

Pateman, Carole, The Problem of Political Obligation: A Critique of Liberal Theory. (California University Press, Berkeley, 1979, 222 pages.) The best discussion so far of the principle of "self-assumed political obligation", and of political authority in general. Together with her first book, Participation and Democratic Theory (1970) and her third book, The Sexual Contract (1988), this body of work represents the most brilliant and devastating critique of liberal democratic theory so far, and a defense of direct democracy and hence of anarchism.

Patsouras, Louis, Jean Grave and the Anarchist Tradition in France. (Caslon Company, Middletown, New Jersey, 1995, 146 pages.) Grave (1854-1939) was a leading French anarcho-communist in the 1880-1920 period. He was greatly influenced by the Paris Commune of 1870-71. From 1883-1890 he edited La Revolte, and from 1895-1905, Les Temps Nouveaux. Helped to fuse art to revolutionary politics. Was working class in origin but managed to become an erudite activist and writer, familiar with the Enlightenment philosophers, British political economists, as well as Proudhon, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Reclus, and Marx. Wrote many books, only one of which (as far as I know) was ever translated into English, namely, Moribund Society and Anarchy (translated by Voltairine de Cleyre, 1899, 176 pages, A. Isaak Publisher, San Francisco).

Pauling, Linus, How to Live Longer and Feel Better. (Freeman, New York, 1986, 322 pages.) Pauling won the Nobel Prize in 1954 for his work in chemistry in the 1930s, and the Nobel Peace prize in 1962 for his campaign against the atomic bomb and war in the late ‘40s and ‘50s. In the late sixties, when he was already nearly seventy years old, he turned his attention to the study of nutrition, and devoted the next quarter century to this endeavor. The first results of his studies were published, for the general reader, in 1970, as Vitamin C and the Common Cold. Sixteen years later he published a summary and review, for the general reader, of the scientific evidence concerning nutrition (especially vitamins and minerals) and optimal health (the book cited here), and of the arguments for nutritional supplements. He and his colleagues launched a new philosophy of medicine, called Orthomolecular Medicine. Pauling was a progressive, a near socialist, as well as being one of America’s greatest scientists. He was blacklisted by the establishment after his agitation against the atomic bomb and his book on Vitamin C. He was vilified even in his obituaries in 1994. For a biography, see Anthony Serafini, Linus Pauling: A Man and His Science (Paragon House, New York, 1991, 310 pages).

Paz, Abel, Durruti: The People Armed. (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1976, 323 pages.) This is the story of Buenaventura Durruti, legendary anarchist militant in the armed struggle of the Spanish Revolution. The book also serves as a sort of history of that event. Durruti is one of the greatest military heroes of anarchism, along with Nestor Makhno and Emiliano Zapata. (See also the entries for Broue, Ackelsberg, and Richards.)

Peet, Richard, editor, Radical Geography: Alternative Viewpoints on Contemporary Social Issues. (Maaroufa Press, Chicago, 1977, 387 pages.) The research of radical geographers can be followed in the journal Antipode. For an anarchist take, see Ian Cook and David Pepper, Anarchism and Geography (Contemporary issues in Geography and Education, Vol. 3, No. 2, no date, but after 1989).

Perlman, Fredy, The Continuing Appeal of Nationalism. (Black & Red, Detroit, 1985, 58 pages.) A blistering attack on nationalism by an American independent, iconoclastic, anarchistic radical. See also his famous pamphlet, Reproducion of Daily Life, in which he gives a lucid exposition of the commodification of labor and its consequences. Some of his essays were republished in 1995, Anything Can Happen (Phoenix Press, 127 pages). He wrote a sort of allegorical, mystical history of the world, Against His-Story, Against Leviathan! (Black and Red, Detroit, 1983, 302 pages). A rather thorough going critique, from a left communist perspective, of Perlman (and John Zerzan and primitivism in general) was published by the online journal Aufheben, No. 4 (Summer, 1995, 12 letter-sized pages), "Civilization and Its Latest Discontents," to be found on the internet at: ( aufheben@/auf_4_perlman.html).

Persky, Stan, and Henry Flam, editors, The Solidarity Sourcebook. (New Star Books, Vancouver, 1982, 262 pages.) A documentary history of the Polish uprising of 1980-81. Includes the text of the program adopted by the first Solidarity national congress in October 1981. Has a chronology and bibliography. For a good contemporary history of the revolt, see Timothy Garton Ash, The Polish Revolution (1983). See also Stan Persky, At the Lenin Shipyard: Poland and the Rise of Solidarity Trade Union (New Star Books, Vancouver, 1981, 253 pages); and Daniel singer, The Road to Gdansk (1981).

Petegorsky, David W., Left-Wing Democracy in the English Civil War: A Study of the Social Philosophy of Gerrard Winstanley. (Victor Gollancz, London, 1940, 254 pages.) A thorough discussion, one of the earliest rediscoveries of this forgotten radical. For Winstanley’s writings, see the collection edited by Christopher Hill, The Law of Freedom and Other Essays (Cambridge, 1973). A more recent collection of shorter writings is Gerrard Winstanley: Selected Writings, edited by Andrew Hopton (Aporia Press, London, 1989, 117 pages) with a good bibliography.

Peters, Edward, Torture. (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1985, 202 pages.) An examination of torture in Western society from antiquity on, including the evolution of relevant legal theory. Peters "explains why torture was abolished in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and shows how it was that torture re-emerged in the twentieth century not as a legal institution but as an instrument wielded directly by the state." (jacket)

Piercy, Marge, Woman on the Edge of Time. (Fawcett, New York, 1976, 376 pages.) A woman becomes aware of her oppression and begins to voice resistance. She is defined as insane by relatives and authorities, and committed to an asylum. She becomes psychically connected to a free communal people in the future. The contrast between what is and what will be is starkly drawn, with the insanity and criminality of the present fully exposed. A trenchant, angry, uncompromising statement. See also, in a somewhat similar vein, her novels, He, She, It; and City of Darkness, City of Light.

Pitkin, Hanna Fenichel, The Concept of Representation. (California University Press, Berkeley, 1967, 323 pages.) The best scholarly study of this key concept. She also edited a reader to go with it, Representation (Atherton Press, New York, 1969, 202 pages), with excerpts from Hobbes, Rousseau, Swabey, Gosnell, Williamson, Griffiths, Burke, and Mill.

P.M., Bolo’Bolo. (Semiotext(e), New York, 1985, 198 pages.) A very creative and provocative attempt to envision an anarchist society, complete with a new vocabulary to describe it.

Poniatowska, Elena, Massacre in Mexico. (Viking Press, New York, 1975, 333 pages, with an introduction by Octavio Paz.) The story of the police and army attack on a student rally and demonstration in Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Mexico City on October 2, 1968, killing an estimated 325 persons, with hundreds more wounded, and 2000 hauled off to jail. There were 5000 armed military police surrounding the rally of approximately 10,000 students and onlookers. Police suddenly opened fire on the gathering, from the ground and even from helicopters circling overhead.

Poster, Mark, Existential Marxism in Postwar France: From Sartre to Althusser. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1975, 415 pages.) Part One (Neither Idealism nor Materialism) discusses the Hegel Renaissance, with Kojeve, Hyppolite, the impact of the discovery of Marx’s 1844 manuscripts, Lukacs, Goldmann, and the early Sartre. Part Two (Stalinism and the Existentialists, 1944-1956) discusses the attack on Sartre and his response, Merleau-Ponty, the impact of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, and the breakaway journal Socialisme ou Barbarie. Part Three (Toward an Existential Marxism: 1957-1968) discusses the Arguments Group, Sartre’s Critique, and Althuser’s structuralism. Concludes with essays on May 1968. Eight page bibliography. A very useful book.

Postgate, R.W., The Workers’ International. (Harcourt Brace, New York, 1920, 125 pages.) An early, short history of the three Internationals. Still worth reading. See also, James Joll, The Second International 1889-1914 (Harper, 1966, 213 pages). There is a massive three volume history, by Julius Braunthal, History of the International, covering the years 1864-1968 (Praeger). G.D.H. Cole wrote a two volume history of The Second International (Volume Three, in two parts, of his A History of Socialist Thought). William Z. Foster’s, History of the Three Internationals: The World Socialist and Communist Movements from 1848 to the Present (International Publishers, 1955, 580 pages) was written long after Foster left anarcho-syndicalism for communism and is written from an orthodox marxist-leninist perspective. None of these cover the reestablishment of the International Workers Association by the world anarcho-syndicalism movement in Berlin in December, 1922. For this history, see C. Longmore, The IWA Today: A Short Account of the International Workers Association and its Sections (32 page pamphlet, published by the South London Direct Action Movement, 1985); A Short History of Syndicalism (short pamphlet published by Workers Solidarity Alliance, USA, being a brief history of the IWA, originally published as an article in its journal Ideas and Action); and Principles, Goals, and Statutes of the International Workers Association (also a WSA pamphlet).

Price, Mary, The Peasants’ Revolt [of 1381 in England]. (Longman, London, 1980, 96 pages). This is a short, illustrated popular history, from Longman’s Then and There series. For full-scale scholarly histories, see Rodney Hilton, Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements of the English Rising of 1381 (1972, 240 pages), the best radical treatment of this topic; and Philip Lindsay and Reg Groves, The Peasants’ Revolt 1381 (Hutchinson, London, no date, 184 pages.) "When Adam delved and Eve span, Who was then a gentleman". Covers the Black Death, King and Parliament, Wyclif, John Ball, and so forth.

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph, Selected Writings of P.-J. Proudhon. Edited by Stewart Edwards. (Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1969, 276 pages.) A good introduction to and overview of the thought of Proudhon, a French founder of anarchism in the nineteenth century. Regretfully, only three of his many books have been translated into English, What is Property?; General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century; and System of Economical Contradictions, or the Philosophy of Misery (vol 1 only). For biographies and studies, see George Woodcock, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon; Henri De Lubac, The Un-Marxian Socialist: A Study of Proudhon; and Stephen Condit, Proudhonist Materialism & Revolutionary Doctrine (a Cienfuegos Press pamphlet, 1982, 43 pages). Proudhon’s Solution of the Social Problem (edited by Henry Cohen) contains excerpts from three of his books, on credit, the social solution, and the philosophy of misery. See also Charles A. Dana, Proudhon and His Bank of the People [1849] (Charles Kerr, 1984, 67 pages).

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph, The Principle of Federation (Toronto University Press, 1979, 86 pages, translated and edited by Richard Vernon, abridged). Vernon’s 36-page introduction is very helpful, with many references to the literature on federalism, and shows that Proudhon’s concept of federation is much more complex than is usually thought. An academic survey of the concept of federation, as used by conservatives, liberals, and radicals alike, is Preston King, Federalism and Federation (1982).

Rahv, Philip, Essays on Literature and Politics 1932-1972. (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1978, 366 pages.) A radical critic from the Partisan Review circle in the 1930s. In 1970, he founded and edited a short-lived (six issues) journal, Modern Occasions, with politics similar to the early Partisan Review. This collection contains eleven essays on American literature, thirteen on Russian and European literature (including five on Dostoevsky), and eleven on politics, religion, and culture, from a generally non-sectarian radical perspective. For more see his earlier collection of essays in Literature and the Sixth Sense (1936).

Read, Herbert, A One-Man Manifesto, and other writings for Freedom Press. (Freedom Press, London, 1994, 205 pages, with an introduction by David Goodway.) "Read (1893-1968) was a [British] poet, literary critic, educationalist, philosopher, art critic, historian of and, above all, propagandist for modern art and design. He was also an anarchist." (jacket) This volume reprints essays, book reviews, pamphlets, speeches, and some poetry, covering the period from 1938 to 1953, and is a good introduction to his thought. Read’s Poetry and Anarchism (Macmillan, New York, 1939, 126 pages) is a heart-felt reaffirmation of anarchism, inspired by the Spanish Revolution. A very personal statement. See also his Anarchy and Order: Essays in Politics (Farber and Farber, 1954, 235 pages). Among his more than two dozen other books are: Art and Society (1966); The Grass Roots of Art: Lectures on the Social Aspects of Art in an Industrial Age (1946); To Hell With Culture, and Other Essays on Art and Society (1963); The Meaning of Art (1931); and Reason and Romanticism: Essays in Literary Criticism (1974). For a study see George Woodcock, Herbert Read: The Stream and the Source (Faber, 1972, 304 pages).

Reichert, William O., Partisans of Freedom: A Study in American Anarchism. (Bowling Green University Press, Ohio, 1976, 602 pages.) A rare, full-scale study of anarchism in the United States. Covers all tendencies: free thinkers, free love, individualist anarchism, Tolstoyans, anarcho-communists, Christian anarchism, modern school movement, green anarchists. Some figures covered: Thomas Paine, Elihu Palmer, Sidney Morse, Josiah Warren, Stephen Andrews, William Greene, Lysander Spooner, Benjamin Tucker, Burnette Haskell, Albert Parsons, Dyer Lum, C.L. James, Joseph Dejacque, James Clay, Ezra Heywood, Moses Harmon, Ernst Crosby, Voltairine de Cleyre, Emma Goldman, Alexander Berkman, Hippolyte Havel, Marcus Graham, Randolph Bourne, Paul Goodman. See also, Eunice Minette Schuster, Native American Anarchism: A Study of Left-Wing American Individualism [1932] (Loompanics Unlimited, 1983, 202 pages), and Corinne Jacker, The Black Flag of Anarchy: Antistatism in the United States (Scribners, New York, 1968, 211 pages).

Reich, Wilhelm, Sex-Pol: Essays 1929-1934. (Random House, New York, 1972, 378 pages, edited by Lee Baxandall, translated by Anna Bostock, Tom DuBose, and Lee Baxandall, introduced by Bertell Ollman.) During the late 1920s and 1930s, Reich (1897-1957) wrote a series of remarkable books and pamphlets, including: Dialectical Materialism and Psychoanalysis (1929); Sexual Maturity, Abstinence, and Conjugal Morality (1930); The Imposition of Sexual Morality (1932); The Sexual Struggle of Youth (1932); The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933); Character Analysis (1934); What is Class Consciousness? (1934); and The Sexual Revolution (1936). He was at that time a Marxist and a Left Freudian, and was deeply involved in the revolutionary movements of the period. In the late ‘30s he began to shift toward biology and natural science, especially after emigrating to the United States in 1939, abandoning Marx and Freud, revolution and radical psychiatry, in favor of the biologically based orgone therapy. As these early works came up for translation into English, he drastically revised them, purging them of their radical terminology and their class struggle frame of reference. This collection of essays, Sex-Pol, is the first English translations we have of the unrevised, original German texts (although two of the translations had appeared earlier in radical magazines). Baxandall’s hope that new translations of the other major books would soon follow has not materialized, probably because of the counter-revolution that has gripped the nation for the past thirty years, which is now moving into an overt fascist phase. This collection contains the unabridged texts of Dialectical Materialism and Psychoanalysis; The Imposition of Sexual Morality; and What is Class Consciousness?, plus two shorter articles, "Psychoanalysis in the Soviet Union," and "Reforming the Labor Movement"; plus the last chapter, "Politicizing the Sexual Problem of Youth," from The Sexual Struggles of Youth. Reich did much to analyze the grip that authoritarian patterns have on us and pointed to strategies for breaking out of them, with a special emphasis on sexual liberation. He was not of course completely free from the prejudices of his time. (See also the entry for Robinson below.)

Rexroth, Kenneth, Communalism: From Its Origins to the Twentieth Century. (Seabury Press, New York, 1974, 316 pages.) Terrific survey of communes and intentional communities, both religious and secular, from earliest times – Essenes, Eckhart, Wycliffe, Huss, Munzer, Winstanley, Owen, Fourier, Cabet – by one of America’s most notorious free spirits. Rexroth also has many books of poetry, collections of essays, including The Alternative Society: Essays from the Other World, and An Autobiographical Novel.

Richards, Vernon, Lessons of the Spanish Revolution. (Freedom Press, London, 1972, 240 pages.) Can serve as an introduction to the Spanish Revolution. Has a 20-page bibliographical essay. Much outstanding new (or translated) work has appeared since 1972 however, including: San Dolgoff, The Anarchist Collectives: Workers’ Self-management in the Spanish Revolution 1936-1939 (1974, 192 pages); Antonio Tellez, Sabate: Guerilla Extraordinary (1974, 208 pages); Augustin Souchy, With the Peasants of Aragon: Libertarian Communism in a Liberated Area of Spain (1996, 76 pages); Murray Bookchin, The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years 1868-1936 (1977, 242 pages); Juan Casas, Anarchist Organisation: The History of the F.A.I. (1986, 261 pages); Jerome Mintz, The Anarchists of Casas Viejas (1982, 336 pages); Emma Goldman, Visions on Fire: On the Spanish Revolution (1983, 346 pages); Guston Leval, Collectives in the Spanish Revolution (1975, 368 pages); Jose Peirats, Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution (1990, 388 pages); Robert Alexander, The Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War; Burnett Bolloten, The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution (1991, 1074 pages); Abel Paz, The Spanish Civil War; and Gabriele Ranzato, The Spanish Civil War. (See also the entries for Abel Paz, Ackelsberg, and Pierre Broue.)

Robinson, Paul A., The Freudian Left: Wilhelm Reich, Geza Roheim, Herbert Marcuse. (Harper & Row, New York, 1969, 253 pages.) Useful introduction to a much neglected field. See also the outstanding book by Russell Jacoby, The Repression of Psychoanalysis: Otto Fenichel and the Political Freudians (Basic Books, New York, 1983, 201 pages).

Rocker, Rudolf, Anarcho-Syndicalism [1938]. (Pluto Press, London, 1989, 166 pages.) Possibly the best introduction to anarcho-syndicalism by one its major advocates. A major work by Rocker is Nationalism and Culture (Covici, Friede Publishers, New York, 1937, 574 pages). A recent biography is by Mina Graur, An Anarchist "Rabbi": The Life and Teachings of Rudolf Rocker (St. Martin’s Press, 1997, 272 pages).

Roediger, Dave, and Franklin Rosemont, eds., Haymarket Scrapbook. (Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company, Chicago, 1986, 255 pages.) A big, beautiful history, illustrated with hundreds of graphics, and with contemporary essays as well as historical documents, of the Haymarket Affair of 1886-87 and its worldwide significance and influence. See also Paul Avrich’s definitive history, The Haymarket Tragedy.

(See also the entry above for Philip Foner, 1977.)

Rorig, Fritz, The Medieval Town [1932, 1955]. (California University Press, Berkeley, 1971, 208 pages, with a bibliographical guide.) A good historical survey, from roughly 1100 to 1500, of the rise of towns (free cities) in Europe, and their ultimate subordination to states. Covers Italy, the German Hansa, developments in France and England, Flemish towns, guilds, the working class, and so forth. See also, M.V. Clarke, The Medieval City State: An Essay on Tyranny and Federation in the later Middle Ages [1926] (Barnes and Noble, New York, 1966, 220 pages); the famous, classic account by Henri Pirenne, Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade [1925] (Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1956, 185 pages), in which Pirenne develops his liberal thesis on the origin of capitalism out of expanded trade and commerce; Richard Hodges, Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade a.d. 600-1000; Max Weber, The City; and Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid (chapters 5-6, "Mutual Aid in the Medieval City"). Compare with W. Warde Fowler, The City-State of the Greeks and Romans (1893).

Rose, Gillian, Hegel Contra Sociology. (Athlone, London, 1981, 261 pages.) She argues that the badly warped social science that we have known for the past century and a half, which was founded on positivism, could have been avoided if Hegel’s leads had been followed. A difficult, but exciting and provocative, book.

Rosemont, Franklin, ed., Arsenal: Surrealist Subversion. Surrealism in the Service of Revolution, Poetry, the Marvelous, Dream, Revolt, Freedom, Desire, Wilderness, & Love. Black Swan Press (#1, 1970, 80 pages; #2, 1973, 64 pages; #3, 1976, 120 pages; #4, 1989, 224 pages). "The most brilliant invective in American literature. Angry. Uncompromising. Provocative. Mind blowing perspectives on just about everything. Total revolt. A must read for anyone who seriously hates capitalism." (from What’s Left in Boston, June, 1989). See also The Forecast is Hot! Tracts & Other Collective Declarations of the Surrealist Movement in the United States 1966-1976 (Black Swan Press, 1997, 276 pages, edited by Franklin and Penelope Rosemont and Paul Garon); Surrealism and Its Popular Accomplices (a special issue of the journal Cultural Correspondence, Fall, 1979, 120 pages); Paul Buhle et al, editors, Free Spirits: Annals of the Insurgent Imagination (City Lights, San Francisco, 1982, 223 pages); and Paul Buhle, editor, Popular Culture in America (1987). (See also the entry above for Breton.)

Rosengart, Oliver A., Busted: A Handbook for Lawyers and Their Clients, with Reference to the New Criminal Procedure Law. (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1972, 175 pages.) Covers all the legal procedures from the arrest on, including: arraignment, bail, dismissals, preliminary hearings, discovery devices, motions, plea bargaining, trial, sentencing, appeals.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, The Social Contract and the Discourses. (Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Canada, 1986, 362 pages, the best edition of Rousseau, based on the 1913 Everyman’s Library edition, translated with a classic introductory essay by G.D.H. Cole, revised and augmented by J.H. Brumfitt and John C. Hall, with a bibliography.) Rousseau is the eighteenth-century enlightenment philosopher who is closest to the modern radical project (perhaps along with Diderot and Helvetius). This edition includes, in addition to The Social Contract, the three discourses on the Arts and Sciences, Political Economy, and the Origin of Inequality, plus the essay on The General Society of the Human Race. The secondary literature is of course vast, but see: Ernst Cassirer, The Question of Jean-Jacques Rousseau [1932] (Indiana University Press, 1963, 129 pages); and Alfred Cobban, Rousseau and the Modern State (Archon Books, 1964, 181 pages). For Denis Diderot, see Diderot: Interpreter of Nature: Selected Writings (International Publishers, 1936, 358 pages). For Helvetius, see Irving Horowitz, Claude Helvetius: Philosopher of Democracy and Enlightenment (Paine-Whitman, New York, 1954, 204 pages). A general study is Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment (1951).

Roy, Arundhati, The Cost of Living (Random House, New York, 1999, 176 pages), and Power Politics (South End Press, 2001, 132 pages). A fabulous, new revolutionary voice from India. A magnificient writer and militant. She has taken on dams, nuclear power, and Enron in India. Her essays on Afghanistan and post Sept Eleven, "War is Peace" and "The Algebra of Infinite Justice," are marvelous. Author of the award-winning novel, The God of Small Things (1997).

Rubel, Maximilien, and John Crump, editors, Non-Market Socialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1987, 187 pages.) "In the nineteenth century, socialists as different as Marx and Kropotkin were agreed that socialism means a marketless, moneyless, wageless, classless, stateless world society. Subsequently this vision of non-market socialism has been developed by currents such as the Anarcho-Communists, Impossibilists, Council Communists, Bordigists, and Situationists." (from the publisher). Essays by Adam Buick, Stephen Coleman, Alain Pengam, Mark Shipway, which ferret out this thin thread of revolutionary thought. There is a postscript describing other resources for each of the five currents discussed, as well as a four-page bibliography. A very important book.

Russell, Bertrand, Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism, and Syndicalism. (Macmillan, London, 1919, 218 pages.) Part I has three chapters: Marx and Socialist Doctrine; Bakunin and Anarchism; and The Syndicalist Revolt. Part II has five chapters: Work and Play; Government and Law; International Relations; Science and Art under Socialism; and The World as It Could Be Made. "I have no doubt that the best system would be one not far removed from that advocated by Kropotkin, but rendered more practicable by the adoption of the main principles of Guild Socialism." (page 192) See also his Freedom and Organization 1814-1914 (1934).

Sahlins, Marshall, The Use and Abuse of Biology: An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology. (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1976, 120 pages.) Proves that human behavior cannot be reduced to biology, but is mediated instead by culture. Sahlins’ intimate anthropological knowledge of kinship in various societies cinches the case.

Said, Edward, The Question of Palestine. (Quadrangle, New York, 1979, 265 pages.) Still the best introduction to the Palestine-Israel conflict. A brilliant, radical Palestinian intellectual, Said has lived much of his life in exile in New York City. Also on Palestine and Islam, see his: Peace and Its Discontents: Essays on Palestine in the Middle East Peace Process (Vintage, New York, 1996, 188 pages); The End of the Peace Process: Oslo and After (Vintage, 2001, 389 pages); The Politics of Dispossession: The Struggle for Palestinian Self-Determination, 1969-1994 (Random House, 1995, 450 pages); After the Last Sky: Palestinian Lives (Columbia University Press, 1998, 1992 pages, with photographer Jean Mohr); Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World (1996); and Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question (2001, editor). Said has also written extensively on literature, and culture. His big books here are Orientalism (1979); and Culture and Imperialism (1994). He has two autobiographical works: Out of Place (2000), and Reflections on Exile (2000); two books of interviews: The Pen and the Sword (1994), and Power, Politics, and Culture (2001); a reader: The Edward Said Reader (2000); a book on intellectuals: Representations of the Intellectual (1996); and a book on music: Musical Elaborations (1993).

Sale, Kirkpatrick, Rebels Against the Future: The Luddites and Their War on the Industrial Revolution: Lessons for the Computer Age. (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1995, 320 pages.) The exciting story of the Luddite (after Ned Ludd) revolts in England from 1811 to 1814. Sale’s account however is marred by an excessively technological take on history, which exposes his not very clear grasp of historical capitalism and radical social philosophy.

Salerno, Salvatore, edited and introduced by, Direct Action and Sabotage: Three Classic IWW Pamphlets from the 1910s. (Charles H. Kerr, Chicago, 1997, 121 pages.) Reproduces pamphlets by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Walker C. Smith, and William E. Trautman. See also, Mitchel Cohen, What Is Direct Action? New Left Lessons in Reframing Revolutionary Strategy (a Red Balloon pamphlet, Brooklyn, NY, 1988, 34 pages). A useful overview of the concept of direct action was recently published by Harald Beyer-Arnesen, in Anarcho-Syndicalist Review, No. 29, Summer 2000, "Direct Action: Towards an Understanding of a Concept." Two other useful essays are: Voltairine DeCleyre, "Direct Action," in her Selected Works, and Lindsay Hart, "In Defense of Radical Direct Action," in Jon Purkis, ed., Twenty-First Century Anarchism.

Sandford, Robinson Rojas, The Murder of Allende and the End of the Chilean Way to Socialism. (Harper & Row, New York, 1975, 274 pages.) Story of the U.S.-backed coup against, and murder of, Salvador Allende in 1973, the democratically elected socialist President in one of the world’s oldest constitutional democracies, an event which ushered in a seventeen-year reign of terror by the dictator Augusto Pinochet, during which at least 3000 people were murdered, and thousands more imprisoned and tortured. See also, Gabriel Smirnow, The Revolution Disarmed: Chile 1970-1973; Michel Raptis, Revolution and Counter Revolution in Chile: A Dossier on Workers’ Participation in the Revolutionary Process; Edward Boorstein, Allende’s Chile: An Inside View; Salvador Allende, Chile’s Road to Socialism; Regis Debray, The Chilean Revolution: Conversations with Allende; Jacobo Timerman, Chile: Death in the South.

Schecter, Stephen, The Politics of Urban Liberation. (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1978, 203 pages.) Rejecting both the Communism of Russia and the Social Democracy of Western Europe, Schecter describes a strategy for libertarian socialism and revolution from below. Considers the historical experiences of Italy 1920, Spain 1936, Hungary 1956, Portugal 1974, as well as contemporary struggles in Chile, France, and Italy. Includes a chapter on the Montreal Citizens’ Movement. An excellent book.

Schmidt, James, Maurice Merleau-Ponty: Between Phenomenology and Structuralism. (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1985, 214 pages.) A lucid exposition of Merleau-Ponty’s pioneering efforts to break out of the subject/object duality, with special emphasis on the project that occupied the last years of his life, namely, to redo his whole philosophy and overcome the limitations of phenomenology and structuralism. These unfinished studies were eventually published as The Visible and the Invisible. Merleau-Ponty is one of the most sophisticated, cutting-edge, radical social philosophers so far; but one sadly neglected by American revolutionaries; his works are in English primarily because of the phenomenologists at Northwestern University.

Schneir, Walter, editor, Telling It Like It Was: The Chicago Riots. (New American Library, New York, 1968, 159 pages, with 16 pages of photographs.) An anthology of accounts of the events in the streets at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in August 1968, by eighteen writers and participants, including descriptions of the police attacks on demonstrators. The eighteen contributors are: Abbie Hoffman, Paul Krassner, Carl Oglesby, William Styron, Arthur Miller, Tom Wicker, Jimmy Breslin, Elizabeth Hardwick, Michael Arlen, John Berendt, William Burroughs (plus Genet, Southern, Ginsberg), Jack Newfield, Richard Goldstein, Tom Hayden, Walter Schneir, Don Miller, and Dave Dellinger.

Schwartz, Robert M., Your Rights on the Job: A Practical Guide to Employment Laws in Massachusetts. (Labor Guild of Boston, 1987, second edition, 266 pages.) Covers such things as paychecks, overtime, minimum wage, working conditions (e.g., temperature, meal breaks, restrooms), Sundays and Holidays, health insurance, pensions, child labor, privacy, safety, union contracts, strikes and picketing, discrimination, pregnancy, workers compensation, disability, and so forth. I don’t know how relevant this is for persons in other states, but surely it will give them an idea of the kinds of things to look for. See also, Robert Ellis Smith, Workrights (Dutton, New York, 1983, 267 pages), a study of how most of your constitutional rights are denied in the workplace.

Serge, Victor, Memoirs of a Revolutionary 1901-1941 [1951]. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K., 1963, 401 pages.) Serge started out in the anarchist movement in France at the turn of the century; moved on through the Russian Revolution as a sometime Bolshevik; ended up in exile in Mexico. Went just about everywhere, met everyone, discussed everything. Wrote along the way, among other things, six novels of the revolution, as well as a history of year one of the Russian revolution. For secondary assessments, see Susan Weissman, editor, The Ideas of Victor Serge: A Life as a Work of Art (Critique Books, Glasgow, 1997, 258 pages). Weissman also wrote a full-length study of Serge.

Shanin, Teodor, editor, Late Marx and the Russian Road: Marx and ‘The Peripheries of Capitalism’. (Monthly Review Press, New York, 1983, 286 pages.) This highly stimulating book should dispel forever the belief among some anarchists that the work of Marx is not relevant to the struggle for liberation, freedom, and anarchy. The book documents the project that occupied the last years of Marx’s life, from roughly the Paris Commune of 1871 until his death in 1983, a decade he devoted largely to the study of rural Russia, learning Russian in 1870-71 in order to access primary materials. Also included are reprints of several lengthy drafts for Marx’s reply to Vera Zasulich (all he ever sent though was a very cryptic one-page letter), plus other relevant writings from the period. Relevant texts from Russian populists are also included, as well as several interpretative essays. See also the brilliant essay by Franklin Rosemont, Marx and the Iroquois," in Arsenal: Surrealist Subversion, No. 4, 1989, pages 201-213, which explores similar themes, in the context of a review of the just published Ethnological Notebooks of the late Marx.

Sharp, Gene, Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System. (Princeton University Press, 1990, 165 pages.) A creative and provocative synthesis of the traditions of military strategic thinking and nonviolent resistance. Sharp raises nonviolent resistance to a new level entirely, and gives hope that overwhelming firepower can be defeated. His unit remains the nation though, not the community or neighborhood. This book can be usefully studied by all revolutionaries who are seeking ways to defeat the vast military machines of the world’s ruling classes.

Shipway, Mark, Anti-Parliamentary Communism: The Movement for Workers’ Councils in Britain, 1917-45. (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1988, 239 pages.) "A world without states, classes, money, and wages – this was the goal of the anti-parliamentary communists....explores [their] ideas and activities [from] Sylvia Pankhurst’s Workers’ Dreadnought newspaper to the Clydeside-based Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation and its offshoots." (from the jacket)

Shiva, Vandana, Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply. (South End Press, Boston, 2000, 140 pages.) A blistering attack, by a leading militant from India, on corporate agribusiness, genetically modified foods, the patent system, and neoliberalism. See also her books: Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge (1997); The Violence of the Green Revolution: Third World Agriculture, Ecology, and Politics (1992); and Protect or Plunder?: Understanding Intellectual Property Rights (2001).

Silverman, Henry J., editor, American Radical Thought: The Libertarian Tradition. (H.C. Heath, Lexington, Massachusetts, 1970, 452 pages.) A good anthology, beginning with Jefferson and Paine (Part I). Covers nineteenth century libertarians: Emerson, Thoreau, Warren, Tucker, Spooner, Greene, Garrison, Ballou, De Cleyre, Goldman, Berkman (Part II). Part III is devoted to contemporary libertarianism: Bookchin, Goodman, Hoffman, and many more.

Smith, Abbot Emerson, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America 1607-1776 [1947]. (Norton, New York, 1971, 435 pages.) "More than half of all persons who came to the colonies south of New England in the seventeenth century were indentured servants. Not until the eighteenth century did Negroes supersede them as the principal labor supply..." (jacket) Covers convict transportation, kidnapping and spiriting, cargos of rogues and vagabonds, trade in servants, the role of servants in the plantations, freed servants, and so forth. See also, Michael Hoffman, They Were White and They Were Slaves: The Untold History of the Enslavement of Whites in Early America (1992, 4th edition). Along these same lines, you might want to read: Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz, editors, White Trash: Race and Class in America (Routledge, 1997); and especially the provocative book by Jim Goad, The Redneck Manifesto (Simon and Schuster, 1997), a book (from the left not the right, and written from a solid class perspective) about America’s white underclass, "variously referred to as rednecks, hillbillies, white trash, crackers, and trailer trash... [listing] surprising reasons for why rednecks and blacks have more in common with each other than either group does with white liberals." (jacket)

Smith, Paul Shaat, and Robert Allen Warrior, Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee (New Press, New York, 1997, 340 pages). Three events in particular are highlighted: the nineteen-month occupation of Alcatraz in 1969, the seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs building in 1972, and the take-over of Wounded Knee in 1973. A sympathetic history of radical Indian activism during those movement years. See also Russell Mean’s autobiography, Where White Men Fear to Tread (1995). (See also entries for Matthiessen, Brown, Roger Owen, Jahoda.)

Soboul, Albert, The Sans-Culottes: The Popular Movement and Revolutionary Government 1793-1794 [1958]. (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1980, 279 pages.) The story of the revolt of the lower classes in Paris, when they divided the city into 48 sections and established self-government, and then defended their new autonomy on the barricades.

Spence, Gerry, From Freedom to Slavery: The Rebirth of Tyranny in America. (St. Martin’s, New York, 1993, 209 pages.) Hard hitting progressive populist lawyer. He was the lawyer who defended Randy Weaver against the FBI Hostage Rescue Team’s murder of Weaver’s wife and son (at Ruby Ridge, Idaho), and won the case. In this book, "Spence makes the eloquent case that we, as Americans, have delivered our freedoms to new masters: corporate and governmental conglomerates, our biased court system, and the censored media" (jacket). See also his book, Give Me Liberty! Freeing Ourselves in the Twenty-First Century (1998).

Spence, Thomas, Pigs' Meat: The Selected Writings of Thomas Spence, Radical and Pioneer Land Reformer [1793-1803]. With an introductory essay and notes by G. I. Gallop. (Spokesman, Nottingham, 1982, 192 pages.) Relatively unknown early British socialist. Believed in decentralisation, common ownership, participation, and mutualism. A group promoting his works was banned by an Act of Parliament. Wrote "The Constitution of Spensonia", his utopia.

Spender, Dale, editor, Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Key Women Thinkers. (Pantheon Books, New York, 1983, 402 pages.) A collection of secondary essays. Covers 21 writers, beginning with Aphra Behn (1640-1689) and ending with Simone de Beauvoir. Wollstonecraft, Fuller, Gilman, Woolf, Beard, etcetera. Includes Emma Goldman, but omits Sylvia Pankhurst, Voltairine DeCleyre, Lucy Parsons, and other marxist and anarchist thinkers who fought for women’s emancipation.

Spooner, Lysander, An Essay on the Trial by Jury [1852]. (Legal Classics Library, Gryphon Editions, Birmingham, Alabama, 1989, 224 pages.) A stunning mid-nineteenth century book documenting the steady curtailment of the powers of the jury over several centuries, a roll back that has considerably worsened since 1852.

Steegmuller, Francis, Apollinaire: Poet among the Painters [1963]. (Penguin, New York, 1986, 320 pages.) A French poet (1880-1918), much admired by Andre Breton and friends who considered him an inspiration for the surrealism movement (Apollinaire coined the term) which they launched in France in the 1920s.

Stepelevich, Lawrence S., editor, The Young Hegelians: An Anthology. (Cambridge University Press, London, 1983, 413 pages.) Selections from David Strauss, August von Cieszkowski, Ludwig Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer, Arnold Ruge, Edgar Bauer, Friedrich Engels, Karl Marx, Max Stirner, Moses Hess, and Karl Schmidt. For a study, see David McClellan, The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx.

Stephens, James, The Insurrection in Dublin [1916]. (Barnes & Noble, New York, 1999, 120 pages.) An eyewitness account of the Easter Rising in 1916. A short introduction by John A. Murphy gives the historical context, as well as references to more substantive histories. Also on Ireland, see Sean Cronin, The Revolutionaries: The Story of Twelve Great Irishmen (Republican Publications, Dublin, 1971, 192 pages). The twelve are: Wolfe Tone, Robert Emmet, Thomas Davis, Fistan Lalor, John Mitchel, James Stephens, John O’Mahony, Michael Davis, P.H. Pearse, James Connolly, Kevin Barry, Liam Mellows. For a full-length study of Connelly, see C. Desmond Greaves, The Life and Times of James Connelly (Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1961, 448 pages). For the contemporary situation, see Fionnbarra O’Dochartaigh, Ulster’s White Negroes: From Civil Rights to Insurrection (Ak Press, Edinburgh, 1994, 131 pages, forward by Bernadette McAliskey [nee Devlin]). (See entry above for Devlin.)

Stone, I.F., The Killings at Kent State: How Murder Went Unpunished. (New York Review Book, 1970, 158 pages.) On May 4, 1970, Ohio National Guardsmen opened fire on student demonstrators at Kent State University in Ohio, killing four and wounding nine. Stone reports on the event and the subsequent coverup. See also, Peter Davies, The Truth about Kent State: A Challenge to the American Conscience (1973); Joseph Kelner and James Mu, The Kent State Coverup (1980); William Gordon, The Fourth of May: Killings and Coverups at Kent State (1990). James Michener’s widely circulated book, a detailed account (Kent State: What Happened and Why), was written by an author who was trying to assess "the strength of the semi-underground forces that seem determined to destroy our universities and the society that supports them." (jacket blurb). Ten days later, at Jackson State College in Mississippi, a similar incident took place, leaving two dead. See Tim Spofford, Lynch Street: The May 1970 Slayings at Jackson State College (1994, 228 pages). To put these killings in international perspective, compare them with the massacre of students at Tlatelolco Square in Mexico City in October 1968 (see the entry for Elena Poniatowska) where five thousand police surrounded the student rally there, and opened fire, even from circling helicopters, killing an estimated 325 persons, with hundreds more wounded, and 2000 hauled off to jail.

Storing, Herbert J., editor, The Anti-Federalist: Writings by the Opponents of the Constitution. (University of Chicago Press, 1981, 374 pages, one-volume selections from the seven-volume original.) Papers from Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maryland, Virginia, and New York, by Brutus, A Farmer, Agrippa, an Impartial Examiner, Patrick Henry, and Melancton Smith. For a summary of their beliefs, see Herbert Storing, What the Anti-Federalists Were For: The Political Thought of the Opponents of the Constitution (University of Chicago, 1981, 111 pages). See also, Jackson Turner Main, The Anti-Federalists: Critics of the Constitution 1781-1788.

Taber, Ron, A Look at Leninism. (Aspect Foundation, New York, 1988, 104 pages.) This account of a radical’s break with Leninism (there have been many) is unique in that Taber ferrets out the authoritarian implications of Lenin’s supposedly most libertarian book, State and Revolution (a book Kenneth Rexroth also described as "an authoritarian parody" of libertarian ideas). What’s even more unusual, Taber exposes the authoritarian nature of Lenin’s theory of knowledge. An excellent read for anarchists and all anti-authoritarian radicals.

Taylor, Michael, Community, Anarchy, and Liberty. (Cambridge University Press, London, 1982, 184 pages.) A persuasive, rigorously argued, demonstration that social order is possible without government (the state) at the community level, and that this is compatible with liberty and anarchism. In fact, community is necessary if we are to live without the state. He doesn’t deal with the inter-communal or the regional levels. See also his study: Anarchy and Cooperation (1976).

Thayer, H.S., Meaning and Action: A Critical History of Pragmatism. (Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1968, 572 pages.) A big, impressive history of pragmatism. Part One covers the philosophic background from 1650 to 1850, placing pragmatism in the context of modern philosophy – Descartes, Locke, the Enlightenment, Kant, Romanticism, Fichte, and so forth. Part Two is on American Pragmatism: Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, John Dewey, C.I. Lewis, and George Herbert Mead. Part Three is on Pragmatism in Europe: Alliances and Misalliances, in England, Italy, and France: F.C.S. Schiller, F.P. Ramsey, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Georges Sorel, etc. Part Four discusses some consequences of pragmatism, and Part Five is devoted to speculations. There are shorter introductions to pragmatism, two of which are by Sidney Hook, The Metaphysics of Pragmatism (1927, 144 pages); and John Murphy, Pragmatism: From Peirce to Davidson (Westview Press, 1990, 152 pages). Murphy’s historical survey centers on Peirce, James, and Dewey; then on the ‘reluctant pragmatist’, W.O. Quine; and finally on post-Quinean pragmatism, namely Richard Rorty and Donald Davidson. The book also contains a handy bibliography of works by and about all these figures and for pragmatism in general, plus suggestions for further reading. A useful recent reader is by Louis Menand, editor, Pragmatism (Vintage, 1997, 522 pages). An earlier anthology was edited by Milton Konvitz and Gail Kennedy, The American Pragmatists (Meridian Books, 1960, 413 pages). See also Hilary Putnam, Pragmatism (Blackwell, 1995, 106 pages), which contains a bibliography of Putnam’s writings (he is a major American ‘pragmatist’) up until 1994. This book though is not an introductory survey of pragmatism, but rather just three occasional essays on the topic – The Permanence of William James; Was Wittgenstein a Pragmatist?; and Pragmatism and the Contemporary Debate. Putnam’s, Reason, Truth, and History (Cambridge, 1981, 222 pages), serves though as a very good introduction to the complex of questions surrounding ‘knowledge’ and ‘knowing’ (pragmatism, epistemology, empiricism, rationality, etc.). Richard Rorty’s essays have been collected in Philosophical Papers (three volumes), and also in the earlier collection, The Consequences of Pragmatism (1982). See also Rorty’s first book, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (1979), and Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity (1989). Donald Davidson’s collected essays are now being published by Oxford in five volumes. For Quine, see From a Logical Point of View (1953); Word and Object (1960); Ontological Relativity and Other Essays (1969); Pursuit of Truth (1992); and so forth. See also, Wilfrid Sellars, Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind [1956] (Harvard University Press, 1997, 181 pages). (See also the entries for Richard Bernstein, Paul Feyerabend, Isaiah Berlin, James Schmidt, Agnes Heller for 1982, Kuhn, Dewey, and Arditti.)

Thompson, E.P., The Making of the English Working Class. (Vintage Books, New York, 1963, 848 pages.) Thompson’s monumental classic work of social history. A non-sectarian British radical. For his late theoretical work, see The Poverty of Theory and Other Essays. (Monthly Review Press, 1978, 404 pages).

Tilly, Charles, The Vendee. (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1964, 373 pages.) The history of the peasant revolt in France in 1783.

Traven, B., The Rebellion of the Hanged. (Hill and Wang, New York, 1952, 248 pages.) This is the fourth in a series of six novels, set in Chiapas Mexico, about the Mexican revolution of 1910. The others are: Government; The Careta; March to the Monteria; The Troza; and The General from the Jungle. B. Traven [Traven Torsvan Croves, 1890-1969] was born in Chicago, but grew up in Germany, and tried to help make the revolution in Bavaria in 1918-19. He was captured, and sentenced to death, but escaped, to Mexico, in 1920, where he began writing about the Mexican revolution, in German, from an anarchist perspective. His most famous novel in the United States is The Treasure of Sierra Madre, because a movie was made of it, starring Humphrey Bogart. See also: The Death Ship; The Cotton-Pickers; and The White Rose.

Tristan, Flora, The Workers’ Union [1843]. (University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1983, 159 pages.) She stumped France to organize the working class years before Marx ever thought of it. A junior level biography is available, by Joyce Anne Schneider, Flora Tristan: Feminist, Socialist, and Free Spirit (William Morrow, 1980, 255 pages).

Turner, John F.C., Housing by People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments (Pantheon Books, New York, 1976, 170 pages, with a preface by Colin Ward, illustrated), and John F.C. Turner and Robert Fichter, editors, Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process (Macmillan, New York, 1972, 301 pages). Relatively speaking, there is little radical work on housing. This is both amazing and unfortunate, considering the importance that shelter plays in human life. These two books make a good beginning in working out a radical analysis. They focus on regaining control, which has been lost, by ordinary people, over housing. A classic essay is by Frederick Engels, The Housing Question [1872] (International Publishers, New York, no date, 103 pages). For an anarchist take on housing, see George Woodcock, Homes or Hovels: The Housing Problem and Its Solution (Freedom Press, 1944, 32 pages). Another contemporary anarchist, Colin Ward, has several good books on housing (see below). For a comprehensive academic survey, see Norbert Schoenauer, 6,000 Years of Housing (Norton, 2000, revised edition, 2000, 502 pages). See also, Emily Achtenberg and Michael Stone (with Les Solomon and Tenants First Coalition), Tenants First! A Research and Organizing Guide to FHA Housing (Urban Planning Aid, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1974, 148 pages).

Twain, Mark, Mark Twain on the Damned Human Race. (Hill and Wang, New York, 1962, 259 pages, compiled and introduced by Janet Smith.) Just as with Helen Keller and Jack London, Mark Twain’s radicalism has been buried. In real life he was staunchly anti-imperialist, anti-racist, anti-war, pro-suffrage, and defender of many good causes. This book is a compilation of excerpts on these and other topics.

Unger, Irwin, with Debi Unger, The Movement: A History of the American New Left 1959-1972. (Harper & Row, New York, 1974, 217 pages.) Chapters on: Origins (1945-60); New Beginning (1960-63); The Student Left Emerges (1960-64); Liberals Become Radicals (1965-68); The Movement (1967-68); The Collapse of SDS (1968-69); the End (1969-72). See also their longer study, America in the 1960s (Brandywine Press, St. James, New York, 1988, 407 pages). There are numerous general studies of that decade and its radical movement, including: Greg Calver & Carol Neiman, A Disrupted History: The New Left and the New Capitalism (1971, 176 pages); Barbara and John Ehrenreich, Long March, Short Spring: The Student Uprising at Home and Abroad (1969, 189 pages), with chapters on Italy, France, Germany, England, and Colombia University in New York City; Tariq Ali, Street Fighting Years: An Autobiography of the Sixties (1987), and 1968 and After: Inside the Revolution (1978); Maurice Isserman, If I Had a Hammer ... The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left (1987, 259 pages); Robert V. Daniels, Year of the Heroic Guerrilla: World Revolution and Counterrevolution in 1968 (1989, 280 pages); David Bouchier, Idealism and Revolution: New Ideologies of Liberation in Britain and the United States (1978, 190 pages), a academic study by a sociologist of knowledge; Todd Gitlin, The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left (1980, 327 pages); Paul Buhle, editor, History and the New Left: Madison, Wisconsin, 1950-1970 (1990, 295 pages); Peter Levy, The New Left and Labor in the 1960s (1994, 291 pages). (See also entries for Breines, Albert, Honing, Draper, Cohn-Bendit, Avorn, Georgakas, Hoffman.)

Venturi, Franco, Roots of Revolution: A History of the Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth Century Russia [1952]. (Grosset & Dunlap, New York, 1966, 850 pages, introduction by Isiah Berlin.) Covers "the illegal newspapers, the secret societies, the police purges, the suicides, trials and assassinations, the philosophical systems, the economic theories, and the political programs." (jacket). Among the 22 chapters are chapters on Herzen, Bakunin, Chernyshevsky, Nechaev, Trachev, Karakozov, the Kolokol, the peasant movement, the student movement, the Kazan conspiracy, populism and nihilism, the working class movement, and so forth. See also, Jerome Blum, Lord and Peasant in Russia from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century (1961).

Voline [Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eichenbaum], The Unknown Revolution 1917-1921 [1947]. (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1990, 717 pages.) Foreword by Rudolf Rocker. "In rich detail [Voline] documents the efforts of workers, peasants, and intellectuals to inaugurate a free society based on local initiative and autonomy .... It should be read by every person interested in the anarchist movement and the Russian Revolution." – Paul Avrich. "The untold story of the Russian Revolution: its antecedents, its far-reaching changes, its betrayal by Bolshevik terror, and the massive resistance of non-Bolshevik revolutionaries." (from the cover) See also, Voline’s Nineteen-Seventeen: The Russian Revolution Betrayed (Libertarian Book Club, New York, 1954, 269 pages).

Wallerstein, Immanuel, Historical Capitalism. (Verso, London, 1983, 100 pages; expanded edition in 1995, which incorporates "Capitalist Civilization: A Balance Sheet," and "Future Prospects," pp. 113-163). This is the best short introduction that I know of to the nature and internal workings of the capitalist social order. Wallerstein has also written a comprehensive history of capitalism, the three volume work, The Modern World System (1974, 1980, 1989). This massive historical study provides the foundation for his many volumes of essays, including: The Capitalist World Economy (1979), The Politics of the World-Economy (1984), Geopolitics and Geoculture (1991), Race, Nation, Class (1991, with Etienne Balibar), Unthinking Social Science (1991), After Liberalism (1995), The End of the World as We Know It (1999). One of the greatest radical social philosophers of the 20th century.

Walls, David, The Activist’s Almanac: The Concerned Citizen’s Guide to the Leading Advocacy Organizations in America. (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1993, 431 pages.) Not strictly progressive; includes some conservative groups. Gives information for one hundred organizations, following the format: Purpose, Background, Current Priorities, Members, Structure, Resources, Publications, Services. Organizations are grouped under: Environmental; Peace and Foreign Policy; Human Rights (Civil Liberties, Race and Ethnicity, Gender and Sexuality, Age and Ability, Food Shelter, Sustainable Development, Animal Rights); Multi-Issue. Has a bibliography with extensive references for each category.

Ward, Colin, Anarchy in Action. (Freedom Press, London, 1973, 2nd edition 1982, 152 pages.) I believe this is the best single book to read on anarchism, if you can only read one. Ward brings anarchism down to concrete reality in terms of welfare, schooling, housing, work and play, social organization, crime and deviance, and so forth. England’s greatest contemporary anarchist writer, Ward has many other excellent books (mostly from Freedom Press), including: Talking Schools (1995); The Child in the City (1978, with photographs by Ann Golzen and others); The Child in the Country (1988); Vandalism (1973); Influences: Voices of Creative Dissent (1991); and Freedom to Go: After the Motor Age (1991).

Ward, Colin, Housing: An Anarchist Approach [1976]. (Freedom Press, London, 1983, 200 pages; a fifteen-page postscript was added to this edition). The five chapters in this book are: Direct Action;

Human Needs; Self-Help; Professionals or People?; and Dweller Control. Ward is a major anarchist writer on the topic of housing and architecture. See also his Talking Houses (1990); When We Build Again Let’s Have Housing that Works (1985); Tenants Take Over (1974); Chartres: The Making of a Miracle (1986); Art and the Built Environment (with Eileen Adams); New Town, Home Town; and Welcome: Thinner City: Urban Survival in the 1990s (1989). (See also the entry for Turner.)

Weil, Simone, Oppression and Liberty. (University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1973, 195 pages.) Theoretical writings from the ‘30s by a brilliant French revolutionary making a break from orthodox marxism. Includes "Reflections on the Causes of Liberty and Oppression." For studies see Lawrence Blum and Victor Seidler, A Truer Liberty: Simone Weil and Marxism; Louis Patsouras, Simone Weil and the Socialist Tradition; and David McLellan, Utopian Pessimist.

Weiss, John, Moses Hess: Utopian Socialist. (Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1960, 77 pages.) Most people associate Moses Hess [1812-1875, German] only with zionism, not with socialism (except to be summarily dismissed because of Marx’s criticisms). Yet in the 1840s he wrote a series of remarkable essays on socialism. Only three are in English, namely "The Philosophy of the Act" (reprinted in Albert Fried and Ronald Sanders, editors, Socialist Thought: A Documentary History, pages 249-275); "Socialism and Communism" (I lost the reference); and "The Recent Philosophers" (translated in Lawrence Stepelevich, editor, The Young Hegelians, pages 359-375). See also, Shlomo Avineri, Moses Hess: Prophet of Communism and Zionism, (1985), especially chapters 4 and 5: "The Emergence of Hess’ Ethical Socialism," and "The Critique of Capitalism and the Vision of Socialist Society." Isaiah Berlin wrote an essay on Hess, "The Life and Opinions of Moses Hess," (pages 213-251 in his Against the Current); as did Georg Lukacs: "Moses Hess and the Problem of Idealist Dialectics," (reprinted in Lukacs, Political Writings 1919-1929, pages 181-223; also in Telos, No. 10, Winter 1971, pages 3-34). There is a chapter on Moses Hess in Sydney Hook, cited above.

Welton, Neva, and Linda Wolf, editors, Global Uprising: Confronting the Tyrannies of the 21st Century. (New Society Press, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, 2001, 273 pages.) A very useful anthology covering the emergence in the late ‘90s of a worldwide movement against corporate globalism. Essays by Naomi Klein, John Sellers, Maude Barlow, Jim Redden, Julia Butterfly Hill, Juan Gonzalez, Amy Goodman, Starhawk, Kevin Danaher, and dozens more. Has a good list of resources. For another anthology from the more militant wing of this movement, see Do or Die: Voices of the Ecological Resistance (Issue No. Nine, December 2000, an annual publication from Brighton, England.) This book not just about ecology, but about the recent global protests in general.

Williams, Eric, Capitalism and Slavery [1944]. (Capricorn, New York, 1966, 284 pages.) Discusses the origin and development of the slave trade, with emphasis on the ‘triangular trade’. "The slave ship sailed from the home country [England, New England, France] with a cargo of manufactured goods. These were exchanged at a profit on the coast of Africa for Negroes, who were traded on the plantations, at another profit, in exchange for a cargo of colonial produce to be taken back to the home country." (pp. 51-52) Classic book. See also Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery (Verso, 1997, 206 pages); Daniel Mannix, Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1518-1865 (Viking, 1962); and Basil Davidson, The African Slave Trade: Precolonial History 1450-1850 (Little Brown, 1961).

Williams, Gwyn A., Proletarian Order: Antonio Gramsci, Factory Councils, and the Origins of Communism in Italy 1911-1921. (Pluto Press, London, 1975, 368 pages.) Most attention is given to the factory council movement in Turin in 1919-1921, its historical background, and Gramsci’s newspaper L’Ordine Nuovo, and the aftermath of defeat. Discussion also of Amadeo Bordiga’s movement. (See also the entry for Gramsci above, and the entry for Ostergaard for more on workers councils.)

Williams, Raymond, The Long Revolution. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1961, 370 pages.) Arguably England’s greatest radical social philosopher in the post-war period. This book is a social history of the evolving democratic revolution. A sort of companion volume was Culture and Society 1780-1950 [1958]. He wrote many other books of cultural and literary criticism, on drama, television, Orwell, Cobbett, Marxism, modern tragedy, materialism. A post-humous collection of essays, Resources of Hope (Verso, 1989, 334 pages), is also a good introduction to this remarkable thinker and revolutionary.

Williams, Raymond, The Year 2000. (Pantheon, New York, 1983, 273 pages.) This book reproduces the last chapter from The Long Revolution, "Britain in the Sixties" (54 pages here), and then attempts to extend the analysis. Under ‘The Analysis Reconsidered’, Williams discusses: Industrial and Post-Industrial Society, Democracy Old and New, Culture and Technology, and Class, Politics and Socialism. Under ‘The Analysis Extended,’ he discusses: The Culture of Nations, East-West/ North-South, and War: The Last Enemy. There is a final chapter on Resources for a Journey of Hope. The book is an exercise "in practical thinking about the future". Since we’re beyond the year 2000 now, you can take a look to see how he did.

Williams, Raymond, editor, May Day Manifesto 1968. (Penguin, Middlesex, England, 1968, 190 pages.) This is a collective work, edited together from contributions (unsigned) from dozens of New Leftists in Britain (identified under contributors). It has fifty sections, covering just about everything. See also, from the British New Left, Student Power: Problems, Diagnosis, Action, edited by Alexander Cockburn and Robin Blackburn (Penguin, 1969, 378 pages); and Towards Socialism (edited for the New Left Review by Perry Anderson and Robin Blackburn, Fontana Library, 1965, 397 pages), with essays by Perry Anderson, Thomas Balogh, Ken Coates, Robin Blackburn, Tom Nairn, Richard Crossman, Richard Titmuss, John Westergaard, Raymond Williams, and Andre Gorz. A retrospective, thirty years later, is: Out of Apathy: Voices of the New Left 30 Years On (Verso, London, 1989, 172 pages).

Williams, William Appleman, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy [1959]. (Delta, New York, 1972, second revised edition, 312 pages). Williams was one of America’s greatest marxist (non-sectarian) historians. This is a history of American foreign policy from earliest times, and considers such topics as imperial anticolonialism, the turn to imperialism, the legend of isolationism, the vision of omnipotence, and so forth. He wrote several other books about foreign relations: American-Russian Relations, 1781-1947; The Shaping of American Diplomacy 1750-1970; and The United States, Cuba, and Castro. His two big books on American history are: Contours of American History (1961); and The Roots of the Modern American Empire (1969). Also see, America Confronts a Revolutionary World 1776-1976 (1976); and The Great Evasion: An Essay on the Contemporary Relevance of Karl Marx and on the Wisdom of Admitting the Heretic into the Dialogue about America’s Future (1964).

Willis, Ellen, Don’t Think, Smile! Notes on a Decade of Denial. (Beacon Press, Boston, 1999, 196 pages.) An astute observer of contemporary American politics. Writes from the perspective of feminism and radical political economy. Covers the range of issues, from free speech to pornography to the Christian Right. Very refreshing and encouraging writing.

Wolff, Robert Paul, In Defense of Anarchism [1970]. (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1998, 86 pages; this reissue has a new 19-page introduction by Wolff assessing the argument after thirty years.) A provocative sixties classic which explores questions about the legitimacy of political authority, and the conflict between the moral autonomy of the individual and majority rule. Argues that only unanimity overcomes this conflict, but since unanimity is rarely possible in social life, democratic theory collapses, as does legitimate political authority. And that’s where he left it.

Wolin, Sheldon S., The Presence of the Past: Essays on the State and the Constitution. (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1989, 228 pages.) An outstanding, but relatively unknown, radical political philosopher in the United States. A deep student of the history of political theory. This is his only collection of essays, as far as I know. He edited the short-lived, but pathbreaking, journal, Democracy (1981-83). See also Politics and Vision (1960) and Tocqueville between Two Worlds (2001).

Wollstonecraft, Mary, Vindication of the Rights of Woman [1791]. (Many editions, e.g., Prometheus Books, 1992, 206 pages.) Wollstonecraft [1759-1797] helped launch the struggle for women’s liberation in England. For a biography, see Emily Sunstein, A Different Face: The Life of Mary Wollstonecraft.

Womack, John, Jr., Zapata and the Mexican Revolution [1968]. (Vintage Books, New York, 1970, 435 pages.) A comprehensive, detailed history. See also John Reed, Insurgent Mexico, and Robert Millon, Zapata.

Womack, John, Jr., Rebellion in Chiapas: An Historical Reader. (The New Press, New York, 1999, 372 pages.) Selected documents from 1545 onwards, providing the historical background for the uprising of 1994. There is already an extensive literature on the Zapatista movement. See for example, for a collection of Zapatista communiques from the first year of the revolt, Shadows of Tender Fury (Monthly Review Press), and for early commentaries First World, Ha Ha Ha (City Lights), and also works by John Ross, John Holloway, George Collier, Bill Weinberg. The web site maintained by Harry Cleaver, Chiapas95, has many resources and links. A more recent study is by Midnight Notes, Auroras of the Zapatistas (Autonomedia, 2001). Marcos’ writings over seven years have been collected by Juana Ponce de Leon in Our Word is Our Weapon (Seven Stories Press, 2001, 455 pages). See also, the critique (and review of critiques) by Aufheben, No. 9, Autumn, 2000, "A Commune in Chiapas? Mexico and the Zapatista Rebellion." (Internet journal, at

Wood, Ellen Meiksins, Democracy Against Capitalism: Renewing Historical Materialism. (Cambridge University Press, London, 1995, 300 pages.) One of the greatest of the contemporary radical analysts of capitalism. This book has chapters on base/superstructure, a critique of Weber, a critique of ‘civil society’, a renewal of class analysis, and much more. See also her critique of the radical post-modernist, Ernesto Laclau, in Retreat from Class: A New ‘True’ Socialism.

Wood, Ellen Meiksins, Peasant-Citizen and Slave: The Foundations of Athenian Democracy (Verso, London, 1988, 210 pages), and Class Ideology and Ancient Political Theory: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle in Social Context (with Neal Wood). (Blackwell, London, 1978, 275 pages). Denies that Athenian democracy was based on slavery, but rather on the free peasant-citizen. She thus takes issue with the orthodox marxist class analysis of Ancient Greece, as for example, in G.E.M. de Ste. Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World. In the second book, she and Neal demonstrate how Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were ruling class theorists. See also, Mogens Herman Hansen, The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes; M.I. Finley, Democracy: Ancient and Modern; and Max Weber, The Agrarian Sociology of Ancient Civilizations.

Wood, Ellen Meiksins, and Neal Wood, A Trumpet of Sedition: Political Theory and the Rise of Capitalism, 1509-1688. (New York University Press, 1997, 150 pages.) An excellent book. A comparative study of radical (e.g., Winstanley) versus establishment (e.g. Locke) social philosophy in the context of the increasing dependence on national commodity markets (including the market in labor) combined with the emergence of the centralized nation-state in 16th and 17th century England. This remarkable couple has produced an outstanding body of work on early capitalism. Neal has pushed the origin of political economy back a century or more in his study: Foundations of Political Economy: Some Early Tudor Views on State and Society (1994, 319 pages). He also has two books on John Locke: John Locke and Agrarian Capitalism (1984, 184 pages), and The Politics of Locke’s Philosophy: A Social Study of "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1983, 241 pages). Ellen has weighed in on the debate on the origins of capitalism in The Origin of Capitalism (1999, expanded edition, 2002). She also has written: The Pristine Culture of Capitalism: A Historical Essay on Old Regimes and Modern States (1991).

Woodcock, George, Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. (World Publishing, Cleveland, 1962, 504 pages.) The standard comprehensive history. But see also, Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice (which is a much read short introduction); James Joll, The Anarchists; and Paul Eltzbacher, Anarchism. A well done beginner’s book, with illustrations, is Clifford Harper, Anarchy: A Graphic Guide. (See also the entry for Nettlau.)

Yoors, Jan, The Gypsies. (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1967, 256 pages.) The story of "the purely nomadic Rom, who travel extensively, covering entire continents in their wanderings...", who "... can be found anywhere from the U.S.S.R. to the U.S.A., from Oslo to Istanbul, from Malaya to South Africa and Brazil," and of "their never-ending struggle to survive as free nomads in a hostile world." (jacket)

Zepezauer, Mark, and Arthur Naiman, Take the Rich Off Welfare. (Odonian Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1996, 191 pages.) A damning compilation of all the ways that the US government subsidizes corporations and the rich at taxpayer expense. By their tally, it amounts to more than $448 billion a year, or "about 3-1/2 times as much as the $130 billion [reduced significantly since 1996] we spend each year on welfare for the poor". They have brief sections on the main categories, as follows: military waste and fraud ($172 billion a year); social security tax inequities ($53 billion); accelerated depreciation ($37 billion); lower taxes on capital gains ($37 billion); the S&L bailout ($32 billion, every year for 30 years); homeowners’ tax breaks ($26 billion); agribusiness subsidies ($18 billion); tax avoidance by transnationals ($12 billion); tax-free muni bonds ($9.1 billion); media handouts ($8 billion); excessive government pensions ($7.6 billion); insurance loopholes ($7.2 billion); nuclear subsidies ($7.1 billion); avaition subsidies ($5.5 billion); business meals and entertainment ($5.5 billion); mining subsidies ($3.5 billion); oil and gas tax breaks ($2.4 billion); export subsidies ($2 billion); synfuel tax credits ($1.2 billion); timber subsidies ($427 million); ozone tax exemptions ($320 million). This tally does not even include state and local corporate welfare, easy treatment of white collar criminals, cut-rate electricity for some corporations, low-cost labor, prison labor, automobile subsidies, and more. The book includes a list of web sites dedicated to tracking welfare for the rich, a bibliography, and a glossary, plus an appendix briefly describing welfare for the poor.

Zinn, Howard, A People’s History of the United States, 1492-Present [1980]. (Harper, New York, 2001, 720 pages, revised and updated.) One of the most widely-read radical books in the United States (400,000 copies sold so far, with 25 printings), by our most famous radical historian. A strong, honest voice, for sanity, peace, freedom, democracy. This is history from the bottom up, grassroots history. See also, in a similar vein, Harvey Wasserman’s two books on U.S. history: America Born and Reborn (Collier Books, New York, 1983, 341 pages); and Harvey Wasserman’s History of the United States [1972] (Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, 1988, revised and updated, 262 pages). Another excellent one-volume radical history of the United States is by William Appleman Williams, The Contours of American History (World Publishing Company, New York, 1961, 513 pages). Also excellent is: Gabriel Kolko, Main Currents in Modern American History (Pantheon, 1976, 459 pages).

Zinn, Howard, The Howard Zinn Reader: Writings on Disobedience and Democracy. (Seven Stories Press, New York, 1997, 668 pages). Essays and articles from four decades, plus excerpts from some of his books. His many books include: Politics of History (1971); The Twentieth Century: A People’s History (1984); LaGuardia in Congress (1969); Declarations of Independence: Cross-Examining American Ideology (1990); You Can’t Be Neutral On a Moving Train: A Personal history of Our Times (1994); Disobedience and Democracy: Nine Fallacies on Law and Order (1968); The Future of History: Interviews with David Barsamian (1999); and Hiroshima: Breaking the Silence (1995).

Zipes, Jack, Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion: The Classical Genre for Children and the Process of Civilization. (Wildman Press, New York, 1983, 214 pages.) Zipes seeks to explicate "the liberating potential of the fantastic in fairy tales." This is a history and study of fairy tales, with discussions of Charles Perrault, Brothers Grimm, Hans Christian Andersen, George MacDonald, Oscar Wilde, and L. Frank Baum. Zipes is a radical analyst, utilizing the works of many radical theorists including Foucault, Habermas, and Bloch (but this is not post-modernist verbiage). He detests the sanitized versions of the tales produced by Walt Disney. He discusses the response of recent progressive thought to the tales. He has retranslated the Complete Tales of the Brothers Grimm, edited new editions Arabian Nights and Aesop’s Fables, edited the Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales, translated the fairy tales of Herman Hesse, and much more. Among his many other books are: Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales; The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World; Don’t Bet on the Prince: Contemporary Feminist Fairy Tales in North America and England; The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood; and Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales, Children, and the Culture Industry. In his most recent book he takes on Harry Potter: Sticks and Stones: The Troublesome Success of Children’s Literature from Slovenly Peter to Harry Potter.